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Clomipramine

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Clomipramine Basic information

Product Name:
Clomipramine
Synonyms:
  • g34586
  • Hydiphen
  • Monochlorimipramine
  • RARECHEM AX KI 5027
  • CLOMIPRAMINE HYDROCLORIDE
  • AURORA KA-7606
  • CHLORIMIPRAMINE
  • CHLORIMIPRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
303-49-1
MF:
C19H23ClN2
MW:
314.85
EINECS:
206-144-2
Mol File:
303-49-1.mol
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Clomipramine Chemical Properties

Melting point:
189.5°C
Boiling point:
bp0.3 160-170°
Density 
1.0568 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
1.5749 (estimate)
storage temp. 
Sealed in dry,Room Temperature
solubility 
H2O: 25 mg/mL
form 
powder
pka
pKa 9.38(H2O) (Uncertain)
color 
white to off-white
CAS DataBase Reference
303-49-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Clomipramine(303-49-1)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
20/21/22
Safety Statements 
36
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
HN9055000
Hazardous Substances Data
303-49-1(Hazardous Substances Data)

MSDS

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Clomipramine Usage And Synthesis

Originator

Anafranil,Ciba Geigy,Switz.,1968

Uses

Antidepressan.

Definition

ChEBI: A dibenzoazepine that is 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine which is substituted by chlorine at position 3 and in which the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen is replaced by a 3-(dimethylamino)propyl group. One of the more sedating tricyclic antidepressan s, it is used as the hydrochloride salt for the treatment of depression as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder and phobias.

Manufacturing Process

22.9 parts of 3-chloroiminodibenzyl are dissolved in 300 parts by volume of xylene, and 4 parts of sodium amide, pulverized and suspended in toluene,are added thereto while stirring and maintaining the whole under a nitrogen atmosphere. The xylene solution immediately turns dark colored, but upon crystallization of the sodium salt therefrom it becomes again light-colored. The reaction mixture is stirred for about 2 hours at 80°C until the development of ammonia has terminated. A solution of γ-dimethylaminopropyl chloride in toluene, prepared by setting free a corresponding amount of the free base from 17.4 parts of its hydrochloride salt by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in about 10% excess, extraction with toluene and drying for 2 hours over anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to the xylene solution containing the sodium salt mentioned above and the whole is stirred under reflux for 15 hours. Precipitated sodium chloride is filtered off and the filtrate is concentrated. The residue is diluted with ether, and the hydrochloride of 3- chloro-5-(γ-dimethylaminopropyl)-iminodibenzyl is precipitated by introducing dry, gaseous hydrogen chloride. It is filtered off under suction and purified by repeated recrystallization from acetone; the pure substance melts at 191.5°C to 192°C.

brand name

Anafranil (Tyco).

Therapeutic Function

Antidepressant

Mechanism of action

Clomipramine is different from the other TCAs, exhibiting preferential selectivity for inhibiting the reuptake of 5-HT at the presynaptic neuronal membrane. Its antidepressant mechanism of action as an inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter is reduced in vivo, however, because of the formation of its active metabolite, N-desmethylclomipramine, which inhibits the reuptake of NE. As a result of its common structure with the other TCAs, clomipramine shares the pharmacological and adverse-effect profile of the other TCAs.
The efficacy of clomipramine relative to the other TCAs in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder may be related to its potency in blocking 5-HT reuptake at the presynaptic neuronal membrane, suggesting a dysregulation of 5-HT for the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clomipramine appears to decrease the turnover of 5-HT in the CNS, probably because of a decrease in the release and/or synthesis of 5-HT.
Although in vitro studies suggest that clomipramine is approximately four times more potent than fluoxetine as a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, in vivo studies suggest the opposite. This difference has been attributed to the relatively long elimination half-lives for fluoxetine and its principal serotonergic metabolite norfluoxetine. In addition, metabolism of clomipramine to its N-desmethyl secondary amine metabolite decreases the potency and selectivity of 5-HT -reuptake inhibition of clomipramine, but not fluoxetine.

Pharmacokinetics

Clomipramine appears to be well absorbed from the GItract following oral administration, with an oral bioavailability of approximately 50%, suggesting some first-pass metabolism. Food does not appear to substantially affect its bioavailability. Clomipramine and its active metabolite, N-desmethylclomipramine, exhibit nonlinear pharmacokinetics at 25 to 150 mg daily. At dosages exceeding 150 mg daily, their elimination half-lives may be considerably prolonged, allowing plasma concentrations of both to accumulate, which may increase the incidence of plasma concentration-dependent adverse effects, particularly seizures. Because of the relatively long elimination half-lives of clomipramine and N-desmethylclomipramine, their steady-state plasma concentrations generally are achieved within approximately 1 to 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of N-desmethylclomipramine generally are greater than those for chlomipramine at steady-state conditions. Clomipramine crosses the placenta and is distributed into breast milk.
Clomipramine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 N-dealkylation to its pharmacologically active metabolite, the 2- and 8-hydroxylated metabolites and their glucuronides, and clomipramine N-oxide. N-dealkylation also involves CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2. Like all the other secondary amine TCAs, N-desmethylclomipramine is significantly more potent as an inhibitor of NE reuptake than clomipramine is. Although N-desmethylclomipramine is pharmacologically active, its efficacy in obsessive-compulsive disorder is not known. 8-Hydroxyclomipramine and 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine also are pharmacologically active, but their clinical importance remains unknown. The hydroxylation and N-demethylation of clomipramine highlight CYP2D6 polymorphism in healthy adults who were phenotyped as either extensive metabolizers or poor metabolizers of clomipramine. Interindividual variation in plasma concentrations may be caused by genetic differences in the metabolism of the drug. In addition, CYP1A2 ring hydroxylates clomipramine. Less than 1% of an oral dose of clomipramine was excreted unmetabolized into the urine, with 8-hydroxyclomipramine glucuronide as the principal metabolite found in the urine. The effects of renal clearance suggest that clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine should be decreased in patients with renal impairment.

Clinical Use

Clomipramine is considered to be the most powerful antidepressant ever made. This dihydrodibenzazepine TCA, with actions on both the NE and 5-HT transporters, was the last of the major TCAs to come to market. Initially, the U.S. FDA regarded it as another “me-too” drug, and accordingly, they did not license it. Subsequently, however, it was licensed for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clomipramine differs from imipramine only by the addition of a 3-chloro group.

Side effects

Male patients taking clomipramine should be informed of sexual dysfunction as a side effect associated with antidepressants having significant serotonergic activity. Sexual dysfunction in men appears as ejaculatory incompetence, ejaculatory retardation, decreased libido, or inability to obtain or maintain an erection. Sexual dysfunction is dose-related and may be treated by simply lowering the drug dose.

ClomipramineSupplier

Shanghai Boyle Chemical Co., Ltd.
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