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Pancuronium bromide

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Pancuronium bromide Basic information

Product Name:
Pancuronium bromide
Synonyms:
  • 1,1’-(3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstan-2beta,16beta-ylene)bis[1-methyl
  • Vecuronium Bromide EP Impurity B
  • Resveratrol 3,4&rsquo
  • acetic acid [17-acetyloxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,16-bis(1-methyl-1-piperidin-1-iumyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yl] ester dibromide
  • Vecuronium Bromide Impurity 2(Vecuronium Bromide EP Impurity B)
  • 1,1’-[3alpha,17beta-bis(acetyloxy)-5alpha-androstane-2beta,16beta-diyl]bis[1-m
  • 16-diyl)bis(1-methyl-ostane-dibromide
  • 2beta,16beta-dipiperidino-5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-dioldiacetatedimetho
CAS:
15500-66-0
MF:
C35H60Br2N2O4
MW:
732.67
EINECS:
239-532-5
Product Categories:
  • Intermediates & Fine Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Intermediates
  • Acetylcholine receptor
  • Steroids
  • REGUMATE
  • Miscellaneous Natural Products
  • API
  • APIs
Mol File:
15500-66-0.mol
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Pancuronium bromide Chemical Properties

Melting point:
215°
Boiling point:
~100°C
Density 
~1, mp: 0°C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
Very soluble or freely soluble in water, very soluble in methylene chloride, freely soluble in ethanol (96 per cent).
form 
Off-white solid
color 
Clear, colorless solution
color 
Cystals
Odor
Odorless
Merck 
13,7077
BRN 
4226892
CAS DataBase Reference
15500-66-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
22
RIDADR 
UN 2811 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
TN4930000
10-21-33
HazardClass 
6.1(b)
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
2933399090
Hazardous Substances Data
15500-66-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 0.047 i.v.; 0.152 i.p.; 0.167 s.c.; 21.9 orally; in rats, rabbits: 0.153, 0.016 i.v. (Buckett, 1968)

MSDS

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Pancuronium bromide Usage And Synthesis

Chemical Properties

Light Beige Solid

Originator

Pavulon,Organon-Teknika ,UK,1968

Uses

Pancuronium is a steroid compound that does not possess hormonal activity. It is used in anesthesiology as a myorelaxant, causing prolonged muscle relaxation during surgical interventions of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, in proctology, ophthalmology, orthopedic practice, and in heart surgeries. A synonym of this drug is pavulon.

Uses

A potent steroidal neuromuscular blocking agent; muscle relaxant.

Uses

progestinantineoplastic

Definition

ChEBI: A bromide salt consisting of two bromide ions and one pancuronium dication.

Manufacturing Process

A solution of 2α,3α,16α,17α-diepoxy-17β-acetoxy-5α-androstane (25 grams), prepared from 3,17-diacetoxy-5α-androstane-2,16-diene (Chem. Abs. 1960, 54, 8908) by treatment with m-chlor-perbenzoic acid, in piperidine (120 ml) and water (40 ml) was boiled under reflux for 5 days, the solution was concentrated and the product precipitated by the addition of water. The solid was collected, dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, filtered to give a clear solution and precipitated by the addition of sodium hydroxide solution. Crystallization from acetone gave 2β,16β-bis-piperidino-5α-androstan-3α-ol17-one (18.9 grams), MP 179-185°C.
A solution of sodium borohydride (8 grams) in water (16 ml) was added to a stirred solution of 2β,16β-bis-piperidino-5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one (17 grams) in tetrahydrofuran (70 ml) and methanol (30 ml) and the solution stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The product was precipitated by the addition of water, filtered off, dried, and crystallized from acetone to give the diol (14.9 grams).
A solution of the piperidino-diol (9 grams) in acetic anhydride (18 ml) was heated at 90°C for 1 hour, the solution cooled, excess acetic anhydride destroyed by the careful addition of water, and the resulting solution carefully made alkaline with 2 N caustic soda solution to precipitate a solid product. The solid was dried, extracted with n-hexane and the solution filtered free of insoluble material before percolation down a column (4 x 1'' diameter) of alumina. Elution with n-hexane gave a fraction (4.2 grams) which was crystallized twice from ether to give the diacetate, MP 176°-180°C.
Methyl bromide (17 grams) was added to a solution of the bispiperidinodiacetate (4 grams) in methylene chloride (10 ml) and the resulting solution allowed to stand at room temperature for 4 days. The solution was evaporated to dryness, the residue triturated with ether, and filtered to give the bis-methobromide (5.2 grams), MP 206°C. Recrystallization from acetonemethylene chloride gave material MP 214°-217°C.

brand name

Pavulon (Organon).

Therapeutic Function

Muscle relaxant

Biological Functions

Pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) is a synthetic bisquaternary agent containing a steroid nucleus (amino steroid), as denoted by the -curonium suffix. It is five times as potent as d-tubocurarine. Unlike d-tubocurarine, it does not release histamine or block ganglionic transmission. Like d-tubocurarine, it has a moderately long onset (2.9 minutes) and duration of action (110 minutes). Pancuronium and its metabolite are eliminated in the urine.

General Description

Although pancuronium bromide,2 ,16 -dipiperidino-5 -androstane-3 ,17 -diol diacetatedimethobromide (Pavulon), is a synthetic product, it isbased on the naturally occurring alkaloid malouetine, found inarrow poisons used by primitive Africans. Pancuronium bromideacts on the nicotinic receptor and in the ion channel,inhibiting normal ion fluxes.
This blocking agent is soluble in water and is marketed inconcentrations of 1 or 2 mg/mL for intravenous administration.It is a typical nondepolarizing blocker, with a potencyapproximately 5 times that of (+)-tubocurarine chloride anda duration of action approximately equal to the latter. Studiesindicate that it has little or no histamine-releasing potential organglion-blocking activity and that it has little effect on thecirculatory system, except for causing a slight rise in thepulse rate. As one might expect, ACh, anticholinesterases,and potassium ion competitively antagonize it, whereas itsaction is increased by inhalation anesthetics such as ether,halothane, enflurane, and methoxyflurane. The latter enhancementin activity is especially important to the anesthetistbecause the drug is frequently administered as anadjunct to the anesthetic procedure to relax the skeletal muscle.Perhaps the most frequent adverse reaction to this agentis occasional prolongation of the neuromuscular block beyondthe usual time course, a situation that can usually becontrolled with neostigmine or by manual or mechanical ventilation, since respiratory difficulty is a prominent manifestationof the prolonged blocking action.

Biological Activity

Nicotine (neuromuscular) antagonist. Skeletal muscle relaxant.

Clinical Use

As indicated, the principal use of pancuronium bromideis as an adjunct to anesthesia, to induce relaxation of skeletalmuscle, but it is also used to facilitate the managementof patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Only experiencedclinicians equipped with facilities for applyingartificial respiration should administer it, and the dosageshould be adjusted and controlled carefully.

Safety Profile

A deadly poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and Brí.

Safety Profile

A human poison by intravenous route. Poison experimentally by intravenous, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by intravenous route: chronic pulmonary edema, hemorrhage. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decom

Chemical Synthesis

Pancuronium, 1,1-(3α,17β-diacetoxy-5α-androstan-2β,16β-ylene)-bis- (1-methylpiperidinium) dibromide (15.1.8), is synthesized from 3,17-bis-(acetoxy)-2,16- 5α-androstane. Oxidation with 3-chloroperbenzoic acid gives the bis-epoxy compound (15.1.5), the reaction of which with piperidine and subsequent hydrolysis gives an aminoketone (15.1.6). The keto group of the resulting compound (15.1.6) is reduced by sodium borohydride to hydroxyl group, giving the bis-aminoalcohol (15.1.7), subsequent acetylation of which by acetic anhydride and alkylation of both nitrogen atoms by methylbromide give the desired pancuronium (15.1.8).

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Pancuronium is indicated as an adjunct to general anesthesia to produce muscle relaxation during surgical procedures or m

Purification Methods

The bromide forms odourless crystals with a bitter taste which are purified through acid-washed Al2O3 and eluted with isoPrOH/EtOAc (3:1) to remove impurities (e.g. the monomethobromide) and eluted with isoPrOH to give the pure dibromide which is recrystallised from CH2Cl2/Me2CO or isoPrOH/Me2CO. It is soluble in H2O (10%) and CHCl3 (3.3%) at 20o. It is a non-depolarising muscle relaxant. [Buckett et al. J Med Chem 16 1116 1973.]

Pancuronium bromide Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Pancuronium bromide Supplier

Jinan Good Medical &Technology Ltd Co., Gold
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