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Chromium(III) oxide

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Chromium(III) oxide Basic information

Product Name:
Chromium(III) oxide
Synonyms:
  • CHROME OXIDE
  • CHROME GREEN
  • 383 GREEN NATO
  • 11661green
  • anadonisgreen
  • anhydridechromique
  • anhydridechromique(french)
  • c.i.77288
CAS:
1308-38-9
MF:
Cr2O3
MW:
151.99
EINECS:
215-160-9
Product Categories:
  • Inorganics
  • INORGANIC & ORGANIC CHEMICALS
  • Dyes and Pigments
  • metal oxide
  • dyestuff metal chrome
  • Inorganic chemistry
Mol File:
1308-38-9.mol
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Chromium(III) oxide Chemical Properties

Melting point:
2435 °C
Boiling point:
4000 °C
Density 
5.21
refractive index 
2.551
Flash point:
3000°C
storage temp. 
Room Temperature
solubility 
Insoluble in all solvents
form 
powder
color 
Pale to dark green
Specific Gravity
5.22
Water Solubility 
Insoluble
Merck 
14,2234
Exposure limits
NIOSH: IDLH 25 mg/m3; TWA 0.5 mg/m3
Stability:
Stable.
CAS DataBase Reference
1308-38-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Chromium(iii) oxide(1308-38-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
Chromium(III) oxide (1308-38-9)
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Safety Information

Safety Statements 
24/25
WGK Germany 
-
RTECS 
GB6475000
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
28199090
Hazardous Substances Data
1308-38-9(Hazardous Substances Data)

MSDS

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Chromium(III) oxide Usage And Synthesis

Description

Chromium(III) oxide is among the ten most abundant compounds in the Earth's crust. It is one of four oxides of chromium, chemical formula Cr2O3. It is commonly called "chrome green" when used as a pigment; however it was referred to as “viridian” when it was first discovered.

Chromium(III) oxide is a very refractory ceramic colorant (even a 50% mix with a high borax frit will not even begin to melt it in a crucible). Chrome oxide is the only stable oxide of the metal chromium. It is a bright to dark green crystalline powder insoluble in alkalis and acids. It is manufactured from the mineral Chromite mined in southern Africa, Asia, Turkey and Cuba. As with other powerful coloring agents, chrome must be milled fine enough to eliminate specking in glass or glaze.
Chromium is a "fast" colorant, meaning can produce strong green colors under all furnace conditions, slow or fast, reducing or oxidizing. It is also a flat colorant (due to its refractory nature), it usually produces an army helmet opaque green. It is powerful, typically only 2% will produce a dark color. It cannot be used to make a metallic glaze.
Chrome oxide is usually employed in raw glazes whereas potassium dichromate is used in fritted glazes.

Chemical Properties

Chromium oxide is a bright green, odorless powder. Chromium(III) oxide pigments are thermally stable and insoluble in water.
Chromium oxide pigments, also called chromium oxide green pigments, consist of chromium(III) oxide [1308-38-9], Cr2O3,Mr 151.99. Chromium oxide green is one of the few single-component pigments with green coloration. Chrome green is a blend of chrome yellow and iron blue pigments; phthalochrome green is a blend of chrome yellow and blue phthalocyanine pigments.
Alkali dichromates are used as starting materials for the production of chromium(III) oxide pigments. They are not classified as hazardous materials and are not subject to international transport regulations. As long as they are kept dry their utility as a pigment is practically unlimited.

Physical properties

Green hexagonal crystal system; corundum type structure; density 5.22 g/cm3; melts at 2,330°C; vaporizes above 3,000°C; insoluble in water and alcohol.

Uses

Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is a dull green synthetic inorganic pigment, which can be used in all types of paint systems where high chemical resistance and outstanding light-fastness are required.

Uses

In abrasives, refractory materials, electric semiconductors; as pigment, particularly in coloring glass; in alloys; printing fabrics and banknotes; as catalyst for organic and inorganic reactions.

Uses

Chromium(III) oxide is used as pigment for coloring green on glass and fabrics. Other important applications are in metallurgy; as a component of refractory bricks, abrasives and ceramics; and as a catalyst in hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis and many other organic conversion reactions. It also is used to prepare other chromium salts.

Preparation

Chromium(III) oxide can be obtained by thermal decomposition of ammonium dichromate. Above ca. 200 °C, a highly voluminous product is formed with elimination of nitrogen. The pigment is obtained after addition of alkali salts (e.g., sodium sulfate) and subsequent calcination.
In the industrial process, a mixture of ammonium sulfate or chloride and sodium dichromate is calcined:
Na2Cr2O7.2 H2O + (NH4)2SO4 →Cr2O3 + Na2SO4 + 6 H2O + N2

Definition

Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is a dull yellowish-green pigment that may be prepared by blending an alkali dichromate with sulfur or with a carbonaceous material. Reduction to chrome (III) oxide is achieved in a kiln at 1000°C.

Definition

chromium sesquioxide: A green crystallinewater-insoluble salt, Cr2O3; r.d. 5.21;m.p. 2435°C; b.p. 4000°C. It is obtainedby heating chromium in astream of oxygen or by heating ammoniumdichromate. The industrialpreparation is by reduction ofsodium dichromate with carbon.Chromium(III) oxide is amphoteric,dissolving in acids to give chromium(III) ions and in concentratedsolutions of alkalis to give chromites.It is used as a green pigment in glass,porcelain, and oil paint.

Reactions

Chromium(III) oxide is amphoteric. Although insoluble in water, it dissolves in acid to produce hydrated chromium ion, [Cr(H2O)6]3+. It dissolves in concentrated alkali to yield chromite ion. When heated with finely divided aluminum or carbon it is reduced to chromium metal:
Cr2O3 + 3Al2Cr + Al2O3
Heating with chlorine and carbon yields chromium(III) chloride:
Cr2O3 + 3Cl2 + 3C2CrCl3 + 3CO
If chromium(III) oxide (also known as chrome green) is heated with potassium carbonate and potassium nitrate, the mixture slowly turns yellow. This colour change stems from the formation of potassium chromate, K2CrO4, in which chromium is found in oxidation state vi.

General Description

Chromium (III) oxide is a chromium complex in which the chromium ion is in +3 oxidation state. The synthesis of its sub-micron powder has been reported.? The IR and Raman spectra of chromium (III) oxide have been studied.? The impact of adding lysozyme on the stability of chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3) suspension has been evaluated.

Hazard

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.

Flammability and Explosibility

Notclassified

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Probably a severe

Potential Exposure

Chromium(III) oxide is used as a paint pigment, a fixative for certain textile dyes; in the manufacture of chromium; and a catalyst.

Shipping

UN3086 Toxic solids, oxidizing, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, 5.1-Oxidizer. Technical Name Required. Spill Handling: Evacuate persons not wearing protective equipment from the danger area of spill or leak until cleanup is complete. Remove all ignition sources. Collect powdered material in the most convenient and safe manner and deposit in sealed containers. Ventilate area after clean-up is complete. It may be necessary to contain and dispose of this chemical as a hazardous waste. If material or contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Contact your local or federal environmental protection agency for specific recommendations. If employees are required to clean-up spills, they must be properly trained and equipped. OSHA 1910.120(q) may be applicable.

Properties and Applications

TEST ITEMS

SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

GREEN POWDER

CONTENT OF Cr 2 O 3

85% min

SHADE

YELLOWISH

HYDROTROPE

0.5% max

OIL ABSORPTION

25% max

RESIDUE ON 45 MESH

0.1% max

WATER SOLUBLE

0.3% max

VOLATITE 105 °C

0.05% max

TINTING STRENGTH

95-100 %

pH VALUE OF AQUEOUS SUSPENSION

5-8

Incompatibilities

A strong oxidizer. Contact with reducing agents; organics, and combustibles may be violent

Chromium(III) oxideSupplier

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