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Bestatin

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Bestatin Basic information

Product Name:
Bestatin
Synonyms:
  • UBENIMEX
  • UbenaMix, Inobestin, NK 421
  • L-Leucine,N-[(2S,3R)-3-aMino-2-hydroxy-1-oxo-4-phenylbutyl]-
  • N-[(2S,3R)-3-AMino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyryl]-L-leucine 97%
  • 3-(r)-amino-2-(s)-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoyl-(s)-leucine
  • n-(3-amino-2-hydroxy-1-oxo-4-phenylbutyl)-,(s-(r*,s*))-l-leucin
  • nk421
  • Bestatin - CAS 58970-76-6 - Calbiochem
CAS:
58970-76-6
MF:
C16H24N2O4
MW:
308.37
EINECS:
261-529-2
Product Categories:
  • ProteaseInhibitors
  • Ubenimex
  • Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
  • Pepetides
  • peptides
  • Bestatin
Mol File:
58970-76-6.mol
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Bestatin Chemical Properties

Melting point:
245 °C (dec.)(lit.)
alpha 
D20 -15.5° (c = 1.0 in 1N HCl)
Boiling point:
448.76°C (rough estimate)
Density 
1.0917 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
1.5800 (estimate)
storage temp. 
Keep in dark place,Sealed in dry,Room Temperature
solubility 
Aqueous Acid (Slightly, Sonicated), DMSO (Slightly, Heated), Methanol (Slightly,
pka
8.1, 3.1(at 25℃)
form 
Powder
color 
White
optical activity
[α]20/D 11°, c = 1 in 1 M NaOH
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water (<1 25), DMSO (2 mg/ml), methanol (5 mg/ml), 1eq. NaOH (50 mM), ethanol (<1 mg/ml at 25°C), acetic acid, aq. HCl, and alkaline solution. Insoluble in ethyl acetate, benzene, hexane, and chloroform.
Merck 
13,9910
InChIKey
VGGGPCQERPFHOB-RDBSUJKOSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
58970-76-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
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Safety Information

Safety Statements 
22-24/25
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
OH2915000
HS Code 
29242998
Toxicity
LD50 in male, female mice, male, female rats (g/kg): 1.3, 1.9, 1.9, 2.1 s.c.; 0.19, 0.19, 0.90, 0.78 i.p.; >4.0, >4.0, >2.0, >2.0 orally (Sakakibara)

MSDS

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Bestatin Usage And Synthesis

Description

Bestatin is an aminopeptidase inhibitor originally isolated from S. olivoreticuli. It inhibits aminopeptidase B (IC50 = 0.05 μg/ml), aminopeptidase N (IC50 = 16.9 μM), leucine aminopeptidase (IC50 = 0.01 μg/ml), and the aminopeptidase activity of leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase (Kapp = 172 nM). It is selective for these aminopeptidases over aminopeptidase A, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, papain, pepsin, and thermolysin. Bestatin inhibits the production of LTB4 in erythrocytes when used at a concentration of 70 μM. It increases the expression of Akt, inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induces autophagy and apoptosis in 5637 bladder cancer cells. Bestatin (5 and 15 mg/kg) decreases serum levels of LTB4 and reduces tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model of colorectal cancer.

Chemical Properties

white powder, soluble in methanol, ethanol, DMSO and other organic solvents, from Streptomyces olivoreticuli.

Originator

Inst. of Microbial Chem (Japan)

Uses

Ubenimex (also known as bestatin) is a competitive aminopeptidase B inhibitor with an IC50 of 100 mg/ml for K562 cells. Proliferation of all the cell lines except KG1 was inhibited by bestatin. P39/TSU, HL60 and U937 were highly sensitive, with 50% growth inhibitory concentration. It is useful in the treatment of non-lymphocytic leukemia. In other types of cancers ubenimex added to radiotherapy or chemotherapy following surgery significantly inmases survival time through immunopotentiation. It is being studied for use in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia.

Uses

Bestatin is "pseudo"-dipeptide isolated from Strepotmyces olivreticuli in 1976. Bestatin is a potent aminopeptidase B inhibitor with no carboxypeptidase activity. Bestatin acts as an immunomodulator by activating macrophages and T lymphocytes. Bestatin also exhibits good antitumour activity and is has been investigated in clinical trials.

Application

Bestatin can indirectly act on monocytes by inhibiting Aminopeptidase B, which in turn inhibits the catabolism of tuftsin. Bestatin has also been shown to inhibit Leukotriene A4 hydrolase. It can directly stimulate lymphocytes through its fixation on the cell surface. The agent has been used in multiple leukemia studies. Bestatin is an aminopeptidase inhibitor, inhibits enkephalin metabolism and leukotriene A4 hydrolase. Inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

brand name

Bestatin

Biological Activity

Aminopeptidase inhibitor (K i = 0.001-90 mM); inhibits enkephalin metabolism and leukotriene A 4 hydrolase. Inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

Safety Profile

Poison by intraperitoneal route.Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. Experimentalreproductive effects. When heated to decomposition itemits toxic fumes of NOx.

Clinical claims and research

Bestatin (ubenimex) is a potent inhibitor of aminopeptidase N and aminopeptidase B, which was isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces olivoreticuli during the search for specific inhibitors of enzymes present on the membrane of eukaryotic cells. Inhibitors of aminopeptidase activity are associated with macrophage activation and differentiation, and Bestatin has shown significant therapeutic effects in several clinical trials. In one multi-institutional study, patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were randomized to receive either Bestatin or control orally after completion of induction and consolidation therapy, and concomitant with maintenance chemotherapy. Remission duration was prolonged in the Bestatin group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. However, OS was prolonged in the Bestatin group. Recently, a confirmatory phase III trial in ANLL was reported that extended the observation to a significant prolongation of remission. Bestatin has also shown adjuvant activity when administered to acute leukemia and CML patients who did not develop graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) within 30 days following BMT. Bestatin-treated acute leukemia patients had an increased incidence of chronic low-grade GVHD compared with the control arm and a lower relapse rate. Recently, a phase III study of resected stage 1 squamous cell lung cancer patients treated orally with either Bestatin or placebo daily for 2 years revealed that 5-year cancer-free survival was significantly greater in the Bestatin group (71%) as compared to the placebo group (62%). OS was also significantly improved, as was cancer-free survival. Recent studies in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLCs) suggest that it also has anti-angiogenic activity.

Mode of action

Bestatin acts as an immunomodulator by activating macrophages and T lymphocytes.

References

1. umezawa h, aoyagi t, suda h, hamada m, takeuchi t, bestatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase b, produced by actinomycetes, j antibiot (tokyo). 1976 jan; 29(1):97-9.2. umezawa, h., aoyagi, t., suda, h., hamada, m., and takeuchi, t. 197615. antibiotics 29, 97.3. suda, h., takita, t., aoyagi, t., and umezawa, h. (1976) j. antibiotics 29, 100.4. nakamura, h., suda, h., takita, t., aoyagi, t., umezawa, h., and iitaka, y. (1976) j. antibiotics 29, 102.5. umezawa, s., tsuchiya, t., and tatsuta, k. (1966) bull. chem. sot. japan 39, 1235. 6. barlow, c. b., and gijthrie, r. d. (1967) j. chem. sot. (c) 1194. 7. bukhari, s. t. k., guthrie, r. d., scott, a. i., and wrixon, a. d. (1970) tetrahedron 26, 3653.8. suda et al. inhibition of aminopeptidase b and leucine aminopeptidase by bestatin and its stereoisomer, archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 77, 196-200 (1976)

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