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VIOLET Chemical Properties,Usage,Production
The sweet violet is an evergreen perennial woodland plant growing about 10 cm tall and forming a carpet of growth that makes a good weed-excluding ground cover. The plant is native to Europe; it grows wild or cultivated in Asia and North America. It has short, oblique roots, procumbent stoloniferous stalks, ovate leaves, highly scented violet flowers (March to April) and round capsules. The parts used are the flowers and leaves; the roots are used only for the preparation of galenic products. Violet has a pleasant, delicate floral odor (reminiscent of violet on dilution) and a slightly bitter taste.
The root contains starch, yellow coloring matter, gum, traces of volatile oil, etc. The flowers contain a blue coloring matter, turning green with alkalies. The flower extract contains (2E,6Z)-nonadienal, (2E,6Z)-nonadienol, hexanol, heptanol, octadienol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol, 2-decanone, isoborneol, zingiberene, β-curcumene, dihydro-α-ionone, dihydro-β-ionene, α-ionone, β-ionone, vanillin and vitamin C. Leaf extract contains (2E,6Z)-nonadienal, (2E,6Z)-nonadienol, hexanol, 2-octenol, benzyl alcohol an octenol, a hexenol, (Z)-4-methyl-2-hexenol, 4-isopropyl-2-pentenol and eugenol.