CARBOXYLIC ACID Chemical Properties
- 4-5(at 25℃)
CARBOXYLIC ACID Usage And Synthesis
of organic compound with the general formula
RCOOH. Many carboxylic acids
occur naturally in plants and (in the form
of esters) in fats and oils, hence the alternative
name fatty acids. Carboxylic acids
with one COOH group are called monobasic,
those with two, dibasic, and those with three, tribasic. The methods of preparation
1. Oxidation of a primary alcohol or an aldehyde:
RCH2OH + 2[O] → RCOOH + H2O
2. Hydrolysis of a nitrile using dilute hydrochloric acid:
RCN + HCl + 2H2O → RCOOH + NH4Cl
The acidic properties of carboxylic acids are due to the carbonyl group, which attracts electrons from the C-O and O-H bonds. The carboxylate ion formed, R-COO–, is also stabilized by delocalization of electrons over the O-C-O grouping.
Other reactions of carboxylic acids include the formation of esters and the reaction with phosphorus(V) chloride to form acyl halides.