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Lead dioxide

Basic information Uses Safety Supplier Related

Lead dioxide Basic information

Product Name:
Lead dioxide
Synonyms:
  • Lead(IV) oxide, Puratronic, 99.995% (Metals basis), 99.995%
  • LEAD(+4)OXIDE
  • LEAD DIOXIDE
  • LEAD PEROXID
  • LEAD PEROXIDE
  • LEAD OXIDE, BROWN
  • LEAD OXIDE, DI
  • LEAD (SU)PEROXIDE
CAS:
1309-60-0
MF:
O2Pb
MW:
239.2
EINECS:
215-174-5
Product Categories:
  • Inorganics
  • metal oxide
Mol File:
1309-60-0.mol
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Lead dioxide Chemical Properties

Melting point:
290 °C
Density 
9,38 g/cm3
form 
Powder
Specific Gravity
9.38
color 
Brown to black
Water Solubility 
Insoluble
Merck 
14,5407
Exposure limits
ACGIH: TWA 0.05 mg/m3
NIOSH: IDLH 100 mg/m3; TWA 0.050 mg/m3
CAS DataBase Reference
1309-60-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Lead dioxide(1309-60-0)
EPA Substance Registry System
Lead dioxide (1309-60-0)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
O,T,N
Risk Statements 
61-8-20/22-33-50/53-62
Safety Statements 
53-45-60-61
RIDADR 
UN 1872 5.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
OG0700000
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
5.1
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28249090
Hazardous Substances Data
1309-60-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 i.p. in guinea pigs: 220 mg/kg (Venugopal, Luckey)

MSDS

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Lead dioxide Usage And Synthesis

Uses

Lead (IV) oxide (PbO2) is also known as lead dioxide. It is a brown substance important in the operation of the lead-acid storage battery.

Description

Lead dioxide, PbO2, also plumbic oxide, is an odorless dark-brown crystalline powder which is nearly insoluble in water. It exists in two crystalline forms. The a phase has orthorhombic symmetry, lattice constants a=0.497 nm, b=0.596 nm, c= 0.544 nm, Z=4 (four formula units per unit cell).

Chemical Properties

brown to black powder

Chemical Properties

Lead dioxide is a dark brown crystalline solid or powder.

Physical properties

Red tetragonal crystals or brown powder; density 9.64 g/cm3; decomposes on heating at 290°C; practically insoluble in water; also insoluble in alkalis; moderately soluble in hydrochloric acid and also, in nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture; slowly dissolves in acetic acid.

Occurrence

Lead dioxide occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite. It is used as an oxidizing agent in manufacturing dyes and intermediates. It also is used as a source of oxygen in matches, pyrotechnics, and explosives. In matches, the oxide is combined with amorphous phosphorus as an ignition surface. It also is used in making lead pigments, liquid polysulfide polymers and rubber substitutes. Lead dioxide electrodes are used in lead storage batteries in which lead dioxide accumulates on positive plates.

Uses

Lead dioxide is a strong oxidizing agent that is used in the manufacture of matches, pyrotechnics, dyes and other chemicals. It also has several important applications in the electrochemical industry, in particular as a component of lead–acid batteries used in almost all types of vehicles.

Uses

Industry
Application
Role/benefit
Electrochemistry
Regenerating potassium dichromate
Anode material/inexpensive and has high oxygen evolution over voltage
Electroplating copper and zinc in sulfate baths
Oxidation electrolytic by clarification Water
Production of glyoxylic acid from oxalic acid in a sulfuric acid electrolyte
Lead acid batteries
Rubber
Vulcanized rubber
Vulcanizing agent
Chemical analysis
Organic elemental analysis and chromatographic analysis
Analytical reagent
Others
Production of matches, pyrotechnics, dyes
Additive
High-voltage lightning arresters
Resistor element
Coating of pipes
Helps to reduce lead contamination of drinking water

Uses

Lead dioxide occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite. It is used as an oxidizing agent in manufacturing dyes and intermediates. It also is used as a source of oxygen in matches, pyrotechnics, and explosives. In matches, the oxide is combined with amorphous phosphorus as an ignition surface. It also is used in making lead pigments, liquid polysulfide polymers and rubber substitutes. Lead dioxide electrodes are used in lead storage batteries in which lead dioxide accumulates on positive plates.

Preparation

Lead dioxide is produced by oxidizing an alkaline slurry of lead monoxide with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, or bleaching powder. Alternatively, it is obtained by passing chlorine into a hot aqueous suspension of lead sulfate and magnesium hydroxide. The ionic reaction is:
Pb(OH) +ClOˉ → PbO2 + Clˉ+ OHˉ + H2O
It also is produced by electrolysis of acidic solutions of lead salts using a lead or platinum electrode. In such electrolytic process, lead dioxide is deposited on the anode of the cell.
Insoluble powdered lead dioxide also may be obtained when lead tetroxide is heated with nitric acid:
Pb3 O4 + 4HNO3 → 2Pb(N)3)2 + PbO2 + 2H2O
Lead dioxide also can be prepared by fusing lead monoxide with a mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium chlorate.

General Description

Brown, hexagonal crystals. Insoluble in water. Used in matches, explosives, electrodes.

Reactivity Profile

Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible material. Reacts violently with hydrogen sulfide [Bretherick 1979. p. 977-978]. Ignites with hydroxylamine [Mellor 8:291. 1946-47]. Reacts violently with hydrogen peroxide [Mellor 1:937 1946-47], with phenylhydrazine [Mellor 7:637 1946-47], or with sulfuryl chloride [Mellor 10:676. 1946-47]. Reacts with incandescence with sulfur dioxide [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 7, 689]. Explodes when ground with boron or yellow phosphorus [Mellor, 1946, Vol. 5, 17]. Mixtures with sulfur and red phosphorus ignite [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 7, 689]. Reacts vigorously when heated with calcium sulfide, strontium sulfide or barium sulfide [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 3, 745].

Health Hazard

Toxic by ingestion. Inhalation of dust is toxic. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Fire Hazard

These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some may burn rapidly. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

Potential Exposure

This material is used in electrodes for lead-acid batteries; in matches; explosives, and as a curing agent for polysulfide elastomers

Shipping

UN1872 Lead dioxide, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.

Incompatibilities

Lead dioxide is a powerful oxidizer. Violent reaction with many compounds, including reducing agents; chemically active metals; combustible materials, strong acids, alkaline earth sulfides, aluminum carbides, aluminum, amines, calcium sulfide, carbides, chlorine trifluoride, glycerin, hydrides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydroxylamine, magnesium, metal powders, metal sulfides, molybdenum, phenylhydrazine, phosphorous red/friction, phosphorous trichloride, silicon, sulfides, sulfur, sulfur dioxide, sulfur/friction, sulfuric acid, tungsten, hydrogen trisulfide

Waste Disposal

Conversion to soluble salt, precipitation as sulfide and return to supplier. Do not discharge into drains or sewers. Dispose of waste material as hazardous waste using a licensed disposal contractor to an approved landfill. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Containers must be disposed of properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.

Lead dioxideSupplier

Shenyang Xianchuang Chemical Co., Ltd. Gold
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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
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010-82848833 400-666-7788
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Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
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Alfa Aesar
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400-6106006
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Energy Chemical
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021-58432009 400-005-6266
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sales8178@energy-chemical.com