- Product Name
- CAS No.
- Chemical Name
- NITROGENMUSTARD-1;UQZPGHOJMQTOHB-UHFFFAOYSA-N;ETHYLBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)AMINE;bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine;N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)ethanamine;2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethylethanamine;2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-ethanamine;EthanaMine, 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-;Ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine: (Bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine)
- Molecular Formula
- Formula Weight
- MOL File
- Melting point:
- Boiling point:
- 280.59°C (rough estimate)
- refractive index
- 1.6000 (estimate)
- Colorless to yellow oily liquids that evaporate very slowly. HN-1 has a faint fishy or musty odor.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Nitrogen mustard (HN-1) (538-07-8)
- Hazardous Substances Data
- 538-07-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
- LD50 oral in rat: 2500ug/kg
- Product number
- Product name
bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine Chemical Properties,Usage,Production
Nitrogen mustards are very potential chemical substances of yesteryears and produced during the 1920s and 1930s as chemical warfare weapons. They are vesicants (or blister agents) similar to the sulphur mustards. They smell fishy, musty, soapy, or fruity and are either in the form of an oily textured liquid or a vapour (the gaseous form of a liquid) or a solid. It is in liquid form at normal room temperature (70 F) with a clear, pale amber, or yellow colour. HN-1, HN-2, and HN-3 are the military designations of nitrogen mustard (for more data, refer to Muatars gas). Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2, HN-3) are colourless to yellow, oily liquids that evaporate very slowly. HN-1 has a faint fishy or musty odour. HN-2 has a soapy odour at low concentrations and a fruity odour at higher concentrations. HN-3 may smell like butter almond. Use of nitrogen mustards is very much restricted other than for chemical warfare. In fact, presently, its use has no records. HN-1 has been used to remove warts in the past, and HN-2 has been used sparingly in chemotherapy.
Nitrogen mustard is a pale yellow, oily, mobile liquid. HN-1 is a mustard blister agent (vesicant) that has a faint musty or fishy odor. Nitrogen mustards are colorless when pure but are typically a yellow to brown oily substance. Odors are variably described as; sweet, agreeable, slightly garlic-or mustard-like. It evaporates slowly.
Although nitrogen mustards could be used in chemical warfare, there are presently no records of such use. HN-1 has been used to remove warts in the past,
Nitrogen mustards are among the blister agents/vesicants used in chemical warfare. HN-1 was originally designed to remove warts and later identified as a potential chemical warfare agent. HN-2 was designed as a military agent, but later used in cancer chemotherapy. HN-3 was developed as a military chemical warfare agent. Nitrogen mustards have also found therapeutic applications in cancer treatment, and there are several pharmaceutical derivatives that were developed as cancer therapeutic agents.
Dark liquid with a faint, fishy amine odor. Used as a delayed-action, military casualty agent.
Air & Water Reactions
When dissolved in water, bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine is a strong base.
When dissolved in water, bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine is a strong base; reacts violently with strong oxidants and acids ; attacks copper and copper compounds. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 123]; reacts with hypochlorites to give N-chloroamines, some of which, are explosives when isolated [Bretherick 1979 p. 108].
bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine is a nitrogen mustard. It is highly irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Nitrogen mustards have preferential toxicity for rapidly dividing cells. Workers exposed briefly to estimated concentrations of 10-100 ppm by inhalation became severely ill. The median lethal dosage is 1,500 mg-minute/m3.
When heated to decomposition, bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine emits very toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides and chlorides. Polymerizes slowly. (Hazard not specified.)
Deadly poison by inhalation, skincontact, ingestion, intravenous, subcutaneous, andintraperitoneal routes. When heated to decomposition itemits very toxic fumes of Cl-and NOx.
Sulfur mustards were formerly used as a gas warfare agent. Nitrogen mustards have not previously been used in warfare. HN-1 can be used as a delayedaction military casualty agent. Exposure to nitrogen mustard damages the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and suppresses the immune system. Although the nitrogen mustards cause cellular changes within minutes of contact, the onset of pain and other symptoms is delayed. Exposure to large amounts can be fatal
HN-1 and HN-2 are considered to havemoderate environmental persistence compared to that of HN-3. Under alkaline conditions, nitrogen mustards are mainly hydrolyzed in water and soil. Because of nitrogen mustards’ low vapor pressure, <1 mm Hg at 20–25 ℃, their concentration in the air is not present at toxic levels. The estimated volatility values for nitrogen mustards from water or moist soil indicate no-to-little vapor concentration of mustard gas in the atmosphere. An estimated biological concentration factor of 7 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Because of the high toxicity of nitrogen mustards, strict safeguards are employed to control their release into the environment. Thus, occupational exposure of the general public to nitrogen mustard compounds via dermal and inhalation routes is unlikely.
UN2810 Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required. Military driver shall be given full and complete information regarding shipment and conditions in case of emergency. AR 50-6 deals specifically with the shipment of chemical agents. Shipments of agent will be escorted in accordance with AR 740-32.
Avoid contamination with oxidizing agents, e.g., nitrates, oxidizing acids; chlorine bleaches;swimming pool chlorine; hypochlorites which form compounds that may result in ignition or explosions. Toxic intermediate products are produced during hydrolysis of HN-1. Unstable in the presence of light and heat and forms dimers at temperatures above 122F/50℃. HN-1: When dissolved in water this chemical forms a strong base; keep away from acids and oxidizers. Corrosive to ferrous alloys beginning at 149F/65℃. Solution attacks copper, copper alloys, and copper compounds. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Polymerizes slowly; munitions would be effective and dangerous for several years
Principles and methods for destruction of chemical weapons: "Destruction of chemical weapons" means a process by which chemicals are converted in an essentially irreversible way to a form unsuitable for production of chemical weapons, and which in an irreversible manner renders munitions and other devices unusable as such. Each nation shall determine how it shall destroy chemical weapons, except that the following processes may not be used: dumping in any body of water, land burial or open-pit burning. It shall destroy chemical weapons only at specifically designated and appropriately designed and equipped facilities. Each nation shall ensure that its chemical weapons destruction facilities are constructed and operated in a manner to ensure the destruction of the chemical weapons; and that the destruction process can be verified under the provisions of this Convention (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons; Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and Their Destruction)