Chemical properties Uses Production method Hazards & Safety Information
ChemicalBook > CAS DataBase List > Indigo

Indigo

Chemical properties Uses Production method Hazards & Safety Information
Product Name
Indigo
CAS No.
482-89-3
Chemical Name
Indigo
Synonyms
otin;Indig;AO201;INDIGO;Lndigo;indigoj;indigon;indigop;Indigo J;Indigo N
CBNumber
CB7459700
Molecular Formula
C16H10N2O2
Formula Weight
262.26
MOL File
482-89-3.mol
More
Less

Indigo Property

Melting point:
>300 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
405.51°C (rough estimate)
Density 
1.01 g/mL at 20 °C
refractive index 
1.5800 (estimate)
Flash point:
>220℃
Colour Index 
73000
form 
Powder
pka
-3.83±0.20(Predicted)
color 
Dark blue to violet
Water Solubility 
<0.1 g/100 mL
Merck 
14,4943
BRN 
88275
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
InChIKey
COHYTHOBJLSHDF-BUHFOSPRSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
482-89-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
c.i. Vat blue 1(482-89-3)
EPA Substance Registry System
C.I. Vat Blue 1 (482-89-3)
More
Less

Safety

Hazard Codes 
Xi,Xn
Risk Statements 
36/38-36/37/38-48/20/21/22
Safety Statements 
26-36
RIDADR 
UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
DU2988400
HS Code 
32041510
Hazardous Substances Data
482-89-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 oral in mouse: > 32gm/kg
More
Less

Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Warning
Hazard statements

H315Causes skin irritation

H319Causes serious eye irritation

H373May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

Precautionary statements

P260Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

P264Wash skin thouroughly after handling.

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

More
Less

N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
229296
Product name
Indigo
Purity
synthetic, Dye content 95%
Packaging
25g
Price
$38.1
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
229296
Product name
Indigo
Purity
synthetic, Dye content 95%
Packaging
100g
Price
$128
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
Y0001752
Product name
Indigo
Purity
European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Price
$190
Updated
2021/03/22
TCI Chemical
Product number
I0212
Product name
Indigo (synthetic)
Purity
>97.0%(N)
Packaging
25g
Price
$56
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
Y0001752
Product name
Indigo
Purity
EuropePharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Packaging
y0001752
Price
$190
Updated
2020/08/18
More
Less

Indigo Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Chemical properties

It appears as blue powder, being odorless and slightly soluble in water, ethanol, glycerol and propylene glycol, insoluble in oil. At 25 ℃, the solubility is 1.6% (water), 0.5% (25% ethanol), 0.6% (25% propylene glycol). The 0.05% aqueous solution exhibits dark blue. It has poor performance on all the following aspects: light resistance, heat resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, salt tolerance, oxidation resistance and resistance to bacteria. Upon reduction, the color will fade, but the dye is good. The maximum absorption wavelength (610 ± 2) nm. Rat oral LD50: 2g/kg, mice oral LD50 2.5g/kg, ADI 0-5mg/kg (FAO/WHO, 1994).
Indigo Aluminum precipitate is a fine powder with violet blue color, being odorless. It can’t dissolve in water and organic solvents with better light resistance and heat resistance than indigo.

Uses

1.  It can be used as food coloring agent with the provisions of China being able to be used in red and green silk and the maximum usage amount of 0.02g/kg; it can be used in the juice (flavor) beverages, carbonated beverages, wine, candy, pastry coloring, dyeing cherry can decorative) and green plum with the maximum usage amount of 0.10g/kg; the maximal usage amount in the dipping pickles of 0.01g/kg.
2.  It is mainly used for the dyeing of cotton yarn, cotton, wool or silk.
3.  Reduced indigo is mainly used for dyeing cotton yarn and cotton cloth, being the major dye for blue dye denim. It is also used for wool, silk dyeing and as food coloring and organic pigments.
4.  Edible blue pigment;
5.  It is mainly used for dyeing cotton yarn, cotton cloth, wool or silk. Pure product can be used for the manufacturing of food dyes, or processed into organic pigments.

Production method

It is a kind of edible natural blue pigment made from the leaves of Polygonum tinctorium. The indigo leaves are piled up and frequently subject to watering, to ferment 2 to 3 months to become a black clod like. After ramming using mortar, it is known as the ball indigo with the indigo pigment being 2% to 10%. The wood ash, lime and bran are incorporated into ball indigo and further subject to water mixing, heated to 30~40 ℃, exposed to the air to become insoluble blue indigo.
Phenylglycine is taken as raw material and form indole phenol after subjecting to alkali melting, followed by air oxidation to derive the products. There are many ways to synthesize phenylglycine. In our country, the condensation method of aniline and chloroacetic acid is adopted. For the convenience of the refining of phenylglycine, we can first make its insoluble iron salt to remove the impurities before converting into soluble sodium salt and entering into alkali melting process. .
(1) indigo preparation. Edible indigo is actually indigo disulfonic acid disodium. Indigo is subject to sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid, followed by dilution with and then soda ash neutralization. Finally add sodium chloride for salting out, filter, wash and dry to get the finished product.
(2) Preparation of indigo aluminum precipitate. First have aluminum chloride and aluminum sulfate have reaction with alkali such as sodium carbonate for preparation of aluminum hydroxide. Then add it to the indigo water solution for precipitation to derive the products.

Hazards & Safety Information

Category : Toxic substances
Toxic classification :  poisoning
Acute toxicity :  Oral-mouse LD50> 32000 mg/kg; celiac-mouse LD50: 2200 mg/kg
Flammability and Hazardous properties :  being Combustible with combustion producing toxic nitrogen oxide fumes
Storage and transportation characteristics:  Ventilated, low temperature and drying
Fire extinguishing agent :  dry powder, foam, sand, carbon dioxide, mist water

Description

Indigo, known chemically as indigotin, is a common blue dye that has been highly valued throughout history and has played a major role in trade and commerce since ancient times. The term indigo is often used to describe many blue dyes produced from a number of plants. For example, woad, a blue dye obtained from the plant Isatis tinctoria, was used throughout the Mediterannean and Europe and is often identified as indigo. True indigo comes from the leguminous plant of the genus Indigofera.
The Indigofera genus includes several hundred species, and indigo has been obtained from a number of these, but the dominant species for the dye are Indigofera tinctoria grown mainly in India and tropical Asia and Indigofera suff ructiosa from the tropical Americas. The name indigo comes from the Greek indikon and Latin indicum meaning “dye from India.” There is evidence that indigo was used several thou sand years b.c.e. Persian rugs containing indigo color exist from several thousand years b.c.e. Textile artifacts from Egyptian tombs provide evidence of indigo’s use by royalty from as far back as 2500 b.c.e. The writings of Herodotus from approximately 450 b.c.e. mention indigo’s use in the Mediterranean area.

Chemical Properties

dark violet powder

Occurrence

Indigo is a perennial shrub found in several regions of the world.

History

Indigotin. The blue dye of the ancient world was derived from indigo and woad. Which plant is the oldest is a matter of conjecture. That indigo was known at least four thousand years ago is evident from ancient Sanskrit writings. Cloth dyed with indigotin (CI Natural Blue; CI 75780) has been found in Egyptian tombs and in the graves of the Incas in South America. Indigo belongs to the legume family. The two most important species are Indigo tinctoria and I. suffruticosa, found in India and the Americas, respectively. The leaves of the indigo plant do not contain the dye as such, but in the form of its precursor, a glycoside known as indican.

Uses

As textile dye. In sutures.

Uses

In recent years researchers have used genetic engineering using Escherichia coli to convert tryptophan into indigo. The desire for natural organic products has also revived traditional production methods of indigo on a small scale. Indigo's dominant use is as a textile dye, but indigo-related compounds have limited use as indicators and in food coloring.the Food and Drug Administration's FD&C Blue #2 contains indigotine (also known as indigo carmine), which is a sulfonated sodium salt of indigo.

Production Methods

The first synthesis of indigo is attributed to Adolf von Baeyer (1835–1917), who began hisquest to synthesize indigo in 1865 but was not able to produce indigo until 1878. The syntheticproduction of indigo was first described by Baeyer and Viggo Drewson in 1882; Baeyeralso identified the structure of indigo in 1882.the Baeyer-Drewson synthesis of indigo startedwith 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetone proceeding through a series of steps in alkali solution.Baeyer’s work was not commercially viable, and it was not until 1897 that BASF (BadischeAnalin und Soda Fabrik) started to produce indigo commercially using a process developedby Karl von Heumann (1851–1894) that started with naphthalene. The synthetic productionof indigo spelled the end of traditional methods of indigo production. By the second decadeof the 20th century, nearly all indigo was produced synthetically.

Definition

A double indole derivative.

Definition

indigo: A blue vat dye, C16H10N2O2.It occurs as the glucoside indican inthe leaves of plants of the genus Indigofera,from which it was formerlyextracted. It is now made synthetically.

Production Methods

K. Heumann treated N-phenylglycine with alkali and obtained indoxyl (keto form), which on aerial oxidation converted to indigotin. Later, a variation of the original Heumann process was made: aniline, formaldehyde, and hydrogen cyanide react to form phenylglycinonitrile, which is hydrolyzed to phenylglycine. This is the most widely used process for manufacturing indigotin. The greatest improvement in the manufacture of indigotin came when sodamide was used with alkali in the conversion of phenylglycine to indoxyl. Although there is still demand for indigotin for dyeing blue jeans, it has lost a good part of the market to other blue dyes with better dyeing properties.

General Description

Dark blue powder with coppery luster. Occurs in isomeric forms (cis and trans). In solid state Indigo is in the trans form.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Health Hazard

ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: Indigo may cause irritation of the skin and mucous membranes.

Fire Hazard

Flash point data for Indigo are not available but Indigo is probably combustible.

Safety Profile

Mutation data reported. Whenheated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of NOx.

Purification Methods

First reduce indigo in alkaline solution with sodium hydrosulfite, and filter. The filtrate is then oxidised by air, and the resulting precipitate is filtered off, dried at 65-70o, ground to a fine powder, and extracted with CHCl3 in a Soxhlet extractor. Evaporation of the CHCl3 extract gives the purified dye. [Brode et al. J Am Chem Soc 76 1034 1954; spectral characteristics are listed, Beilstein 24 II 233, 24 III/IV 1791.]

More
Less

Indigo Suppliers

J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
Fax
86-10-82849933
Email
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
96815
Advantage
76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
21-61259100-
Fax
86-21-61259102
Email
sh@meryer.com
Country
China
ProdList
40265
Advantage
62
future industrial shanghai co., ltd
Tel
400-0066-400;021-60496031
Fax
021-55660885
Email
sales@jonln.com;sales@jonln.com
Country
China
ProdList
2000
Advantage
65
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd.
Tel
021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
Fax
021-67121385
Email
Sales-CN@TCIchemicals.com
Country
China
ProdList
24555
Advantage
81
Energy Chemical
Tel
021-58432009-
Fax
021-58436166
Email
sales8178@energy-chemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
44043
Advantage
61
JinYan Chemicals(ShangHai) Co.,Ltd.
Tel
13817811078,021-50426030
Fax
86-021-50426522,50426273
Email
sales@jingyan-chemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
10006
Advantage
60
Winchem Industrial Co. Ltd
Tel
0574-83851061;0574-87083208
Fax
86-574-87083209
Email
info@win-chemical.com;info@win-chemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
500
Advantage
55
Adamas Reagent, Ltd.
Tel
400-600-9262
Email
bxy@titansci.com
Country
China
ProdList
13915
Advantage
59
Shanghai Hanhong Scientific Co.,Ltd.
Tel
021-54306202- ;021-54308259-
Fax
+86-21-64545202
Email
info@hanhonggroup.com;info@hanhonggroup.com
Country
China
ProdList
43255
Advantage
64
Chengdu XiYa Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
;
Fax
0539-6365991
Email
sale@xiyashiji.com;3007716753@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
10578
Advantage
57
More
Less

View Lastest Price from Indigo manufacturers

NanJing Spring & Autumn Biological Engineering CO., LTD.
Product
Indigo 482-89-3 482-89-3
Price
US $18.00/mg
Min. Order
20mg
Purity
≥98%
Supply Ability
1000.00 kgs
Release date
2019-07-10
Shanghai Standard Technology Co., Ltd.
Product
Indigo 482-89-3
Price
US $0.00/mg
Min. Order
5mg
Purity
Analytical Standard
Supply Ability
10 g
Release date
2019-10-08
Shanghai Standard Technology Co., Ltd.
Product
Indigo 482-89-3
Price
US $0.00/mg
Min. Order
5mg
Purity
≥98%(HPLC)
Supply Ability
10 g
Release date
2019-10-08

482-89-3, IndigoRelated Search:


  • (2,2’-biindoline)-3,3’-dione
  • (2,2'-Biindoline)-3,3'-dione
  • (delta(2,2’(3h,3’h))-biindole)-3,3’-dione
  • (delta(2,2’)-biindoline)-3,3’-dione
  • PIGMENT BLUE 66
  • d&cblueno.6
  • D+C Blue No. 6
  • d+cblueno6
  • dandcblueno.6
  • dandcblueno6
  • delta(2,2’)-bipseudoindoxyl
  • delta(sup2,2’)-bipseudoindoxyl
  • delta2,2'-Bipseudoindoxyl
  • Diindogen
  • Indigo Ciba
  • Indigo Ciba SL
  • Indigo J
  • Indigo N
  • Indigo NAC
  • Indigo NACCO
  • Indigo natural
  • Indigo P
  • Indigo PLN
  • Indigo Powder W
  • Indigo Pure BASF
  • Indigo Pure BASF Powder K
  • VAT BLUE 1
  • 2-(1,3-dihydro-3-oxo-2h-indol-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-3h-indol-3-one
  • 2,2'-Bis(2,3-dihydro-3-oxoindolylidene)
  • INDIGO
  • INDIGO BLUE
  • INDIGO (SYNTHETIC)
  • INDIGOTIN
  • CI NO 73000
  • CI 73000
  • Indigotin Vat Blue 1
  • VAT BLUE 1 (INDIGO C.I. 73000)
  • Indig
  • 2-(1,3-Dihydro-3-oxo-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1
  • 2-(1,3-Dihydrpo-3-oxo-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-one
  • Indigo 〔Indigotin〕
  • Indigo blue Indigotin Vat Blue 1
  • (delta(sup2,2’)-biindoline)-3,3’-dione
  • (delta2,2'(3H,3'H)-Biindole)-3,3'-dione
  • (delta2,2'-Biindoline)-3,3'-dione
  • 11669 Blue
  • 11669blue
  • 1H,1’H-[2,2’]biindolylidene-3,3’-dione
  • 2-(1,3-dihydro-3-oxo-2H-indazol-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-one
  • 2-(1,3-dihydro-3-oxo-2h-indol-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-3h-indol-3-on
  • 2(1,3-dihydro-3-oxo-2h-indol-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-3h-indol-3-on
  • 2,2’-Biindolinyl-3,3’-dion
  • 3H-Indol-3-one, 2-(1,3-dihydro-3-oxo-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-
  • Blue No. 201
  • blueno.201
  • blueno201
  • C.I, vat blue 1
  • C.I. pigment blue 66