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Direct Dyes

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The direct dyes that are soluble in water and ionizable to form colored anions can directly dye the cellulose fibers or protein fibers without the action of the mordant.

This kind of dyes was developed after the find of the Congo red in 1884. The Congo red is formed by the couple of the united amine and 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid. To the 19th century, a variety of amino acid naphthol began the industrial production, and their varieties were greatly enriched. Green and black direct dyes had emerged.

The direct dyes have a higher affinity to the cellulose fibers, and the dyeing of the cellulose fibers should be carried out in a neutral or weakly alkaline medium. While the protein fibers are generally dyed in a neutral or weakly acidic medium.

The direct dyes are mostly sodium salts of aromatic compounds. They are soluble in water and their solubility increases with temperature. The direct dyes can dissociate into anions in water. The leather surface can be easily colored but it is generally difficult for the direct dyes to penetrate into the leather interior due to their big molecular weight and poor permeability. So we usually add a little ammonia before the dyeing to promote the penetration and slow down the combination with leather.

The direct dyes are sensitive to acid, and the addition of acid can make the direct dyes deposit. After dyeing, if we treat them with the fixing agent, organic acid, etc., we can improve the fastness.

The direct dyes are popular for their simple production method, complete chromatography, low cost and easy application, but their soaping fastness and light fastness are relatively poor. The direct dyes have been previously widely used for the dyeing of the cellulose fibers, protein fibers, synthetic fibers and their blended fabric. The main intermediates of many varieties of direct dyes are benzidine and its derivatives, which have been proposed as carcinogenic substances in the early 1970s and taken out of production for use. So far the production of direct dyes in the world's major companies have also been stopped and applied.

As for the different application, the direct dyes will be divided into four categories: general direct dyes, direct fast dyes, direct copper dyes and direct diazo dyes. According to the chemical structure, their types include azo, stilbene, phthalocyanine and dioxazine, of which the azo-type is the most important. In general, the main structure type of the direct dyes is azo (including monoazo and polyazo), and benzidine and its derivatives are the diazo component of many varieties. For example, Congo Red (C.I. Direct Red 28) ,the first direct dye synthesized by the N. Bottiger in 1884, has been no longer used for dyeing due to its poor light fastness, but it can be used for biological materials, colored paper as well as indicating acid agent.

The direct Fast Dyes refer to the light fastness of direct dyes in level 4 or more, and their molecular structure is more complex than the average direct dyes, such as the direct light Brilliant Blue (C.I. Direct Blue 106). The molecules of direct copper dyes contain groups that are capable of forming complex with the copper salt, such as hydroxyl group, carboxyl group or alkoxy group. They are in the mutual ortho-ortho-position of azo group. After copper treatment, the dyes can form copper complex and obtain better light fastness, such as the direct copper blue 2R (C.I. Direct Blue 151).

The molecules of fast direct diazo dyes contain an amino group. After dyeing on the fiber, the amino group may then couple with the coupled component on the fiber by diazotizationin to deepen the depth of the dye color and increases the dye fastness. Since the colors of this type of dyes show larger changes, it is difficult to control the color changes, and now they have been basically no longer used, such as direct diazo black BH (C. I. Direct Blue 2).

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT FAST BROWN M
CAS:
2429-82-5
MF:
C29H19N5Na2O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BRILLIANT YELLOW
CAS:
3051-11-4
MF:
C26H18N4Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Black 38
CAS:
1937-37-7
MF:
C34H25N9Na2O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLORAZOL VIOLET N
CAS:
2586-60-9
MF:
C32H22N6Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT PURE YELLOW 5G
CAS:
10130-29-7
MF:
C24H19N4NaO5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 12
CAS:
2870-32-8
MF:
C30H26N4Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT BLUE 15
CAS:
2429-74-5
MF:
C34H24N6Na4O16S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT SCARLET B
CAS:
3530-19-6
MF:
C30H22N4Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Orange 39
CAS:
1325-54-8
MF:
C12N3H10SO3Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Brown 95
CAS:
16071-86-6
MF:
C31H18CuN6O9S.2Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Black 80
CAS:
8003-69-8
MF:
C36H23N8O11S3.3Na
Chemical Name:
Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-methyl-5-nitro-, alk. cond. products, reaction products with formaldehyde
CAS:
1325-38-8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLORAZOL BLUE RW
CAS:
2586-57-4
MF:
C34H25N5Na2O10S2
Chemical Name:
C.I.Direct Brown 2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 75 tetrasodium salt
CAS:
2829-43-8
MF:
C33H22N8Na4O15S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 86
CAS:
1330-38-7
MF:
C32H14CuN8Na2O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tetrasodium 3,3'-[(1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis[imino(5-methoxy-2-methyl-4,1-phenylene)azo]]bis(naphthalene-1,5-disulphonate)
CAS:
82944-42-1
MF:
C39H29N9Na4O15S4
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 142
CAS:
71902-08-4
MF:
d"
Chemical Name:
C.I.Direct Green 1
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 83:1
CAS:
90880-77-6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIAMINE GREEN B
CAS:
4335-09-5
MF:
C34H22N8Na2O10S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
disodium 2-[4-[[1-[[(2-methoxy-5-methyl-4-sulphonatophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]phenyl]-6-methylbenzothiazole-7-sulphonate
CAS:
72705-26-1
MF:
C26H22N4Na2O9S3
Chemical Name:
Direct Violet R
Chemical Name:
Direct Dark Brown NM
CAS:
220308-48-5
MF:
C30H20O8N6Na2S
Chemical Name:
Direct Dyes
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLORANTINE FAST RED 5B
CAS:
2610-11-9
MF:
C29H19N5Na2O8S2
Chemical Name:
STILBENE YELLOW
CAS:
1325-37-7
MF:
C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Chemical Name:
Direct Orange 46
CAS:
12222-37-6
MF:
Unspecified
Structure:
Chemical Name:
disodium 4-amino-5-hydroxy-3-[[4'-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)azo][1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]azo]-6-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate
CAS:
3626-28-6
MF:
C34H23N7Na2O8S2
Chemical Name:
Direct Violet B
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT RED 80
CAS:
2610-10-8
MF:
C45H26N10Na6O21S6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 23
CAS:
3441-14-3
MF:
C35H25N7Na2O10S2
Chemical Name:
DIRECT BLACK
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 151
CAS:
110735-25-6
MF:
C34H25N5O10S2.2Na
Chemical Name:
DIRECT BLACK 38
CAS:
381937-37-7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT YELLOW 29
CAS:
6537-66-2
MF:
C42H24N6Na2O6S6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
SIRIUS YELLOW GC
CAS:
8005-52-5
MF:
C27H20N6Na2O8S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
SIRIUS SUPRA RED VIOLET B
CAS:
7198-99-4
MF:
C35H26N8Na4O17S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
disodium 3-[[4-[[4-amino-6(or 7)-sulphonatonaphthyl]azo]phenyl]azo]-6-[(2,4-diaminophenyl)azo]-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulphonate
CAS:
8003-62-1
MF:
C32H23N9Na2O7S2
Chemical Name:
B2R DIRECT BLUE B2R
Chemical Name:
Direct Dark Green NB
MF:
C36H22O13N9S2Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Orange S
CAS:
3626-36-6
MF:
C33H22N6Na2O9S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Brown 44
CAS:
6252-62-6
MF:
C30H24N12Na2O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 120
CAS:
12222-63-8
MF:
C27H22N6Na2O9S2
Chemical Name:
Direct Red Brown RN
MF:
C37H28O12N12S4Na4
Chemical Name:
Direct Brown 161
Chemical Name:
DIRECT YELLOW 117
CAS:
12217-74-2
MF:
C30H21N6Na3O11S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 71
CAS:
4399-55-7
MF:
C40H23N7Na4O13S4
Chemical Name:
C.I.Direct Black 168
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 80
CAS:
12222-00-3
MF:
C32H14Cu2N4Na4O16S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 107
CAS:
61815-04-1
MF:
C23H38N7O17P3S
Chemical Name:
Direct Brown 116
CAS:
61724-81-0
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 297
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 96
CAS:
61725-08-4
Chemical Name:
Direct Scarlet 4BE
Chemical Name:
Direct Bordeaux BE
Chemical Name:
C.I.Direct Black 173
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Grey D
CAS:
2945-96-2
MF:
C24H22N6NaO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tetrasodium 2-[[4-[[4-[[1-hydroxy-6-(phenylamino)-3-sulphonato-2-naphthyl]azo]-7-sulphonato-1-naphthyl]azo]-1-naphthyl]azo]benzene-1,4-disulphonate
CAS:
6428-58-6
MF:
C42H25N7Na4O13S4
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 9
CAS:
61724-94-5
Chemical Name:
DIRECT BLUE 202
CAS:
107043-92-5
Chemical Name:
Direct Fast Turquoise Blue
Chemical Name:
Direct Red Brown RN
MF:
C38H28N12O12S4.4Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT BLACK 22
CAS:
6473-13-8
MF:
C44H32N13Na3O11S3
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 132
CAS:
61968-26-1
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 106
CAS:
6527-70-4
MF:
C30H18Cl2N4O8S2
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 227
CAS:
12222-51-4
MF:
C60H46N16O22S6.6Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 243
CAS:
86543-85-3
MF:
C38H32N10O17S4
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow Brown MD
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Blue 78
CAS:
2503-73-3
MF:
C42H25N7Na4O13S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Green 26
CAS:
6388-26-7
MF:
C50H33N12Na5O18S4
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 3B
Chemical Name:
C.I.Direct Yellow 49
Chemical Name:
C.I. Direct Blue 85
CAS:
61724-72-9
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 239
Chemical Name:
Direct Turquoise Blue
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 106
CAS:
12222-60-5
MF:
C48H18N8Na6O18S6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Black 168
CAS:
85631-88-5
MF:
C34H24N9Na3O11S3
Chemical Name:
Copper, [29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32]-, aminosulfonyl sulfo derivs., sodium salts
CAS:
90295-11-7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Violet 12
CAS:
2429-75-6
MF:
C32H22N6Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT VIOLET 51
CAS:
5489-77-0
MF:
C32H27N5Na2O8S2
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 254
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tetrasodium 4,4'-[carbonylbis[imino(5-methoxy-2-methyl-4,1-phenylene)azo]]bis[5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonate]
CAS:
1937-34-4
MF:
C37H28N6Na4O17S4
Chemical Name:
C.I. Direct Yellow 44 (29000)
Chemical Name:
DIRECT GREEN 1
Chemical Name:
C.I.Direct Black 168
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 45
MF:
C24H15N3Na2O7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
REMASTRAL BLUE FFRL
CAS:
1324-58-9
MF:
C34H19Cl2N4Na3O11S3
Chemical Name:
DIRECT DYES
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow 24
CAS:
6486-29-9
MF:
C17H16N2O3
Chemical Name:
Direct Green NB
Chemical Name:
Direct Scarlet G
Chemical Name:
Direct Yellow Brown 3G
Chemical Name:
Direct Green DB
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Violet 9
CAS:
6227-14-1
MF:
C30H23N5Na2O8S2
Chemical Name:
Direct Violet 66
CAS:
6798-03-4
MF:
C32H19Cu2N7Na2O14S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Benzoic acid, 5-4-4-4-(4-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-3-sulfo-1-anthracenyl)amino-2-sulfophenylamino-6-(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminophenylazo-2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt
CAS:
6471-09-6
MF:
C42H27N10O11S2.3Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Red 31
CAS:
5001-72-9
MF:
C32H21N5Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tetrasodium [mu-[[7,7'-(carbonyldiimino)bis[4-hydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulphophenyl)azo]naphthalene-2-sulphonato]](8-)]]dicuprate(4-)
CAS:
15418-16-3
MF:
C33H20N6O17S4.4Na
Chemical Name:
Direct Brown 223
CAS:
76930-14-8