Azoic dyes Coupler Disperse dyes Vat Dyes Reactive dyes basic dyes Sulfur Dyes Leather dyes Acid dye Cationic dyes Direct Dyes Neutral dyes Solvent Dyes
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dye

Azoic dyes Coupler Disperse dyes Vat Dyes Reactive dyes basic dyes Sulfur Dyes Leather dyes Acid dye Cationic dyes Direct Dyes Neutral dyes Solvent Dyes
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Dyes refer to the organic substances enable the strong coloring of fiber and some other materials. There are various kinds of dyes. According to the source, they can be divided into natural dyes (such as vegetable dyes, animal dyes and mineral dyes, etc.) and synthetic dyes (or artificial dyes). According to the molecular structure, it can be divided into azo dyes, anthraquinone dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, aromatic dyes and nitro dyes. Based on the application methods, it can be divided into acid dyes, basic dyes, sulfur dyes, reactive dyes, disperse dyes, direct dyes and so on. Dyes have color, but substance having color does not necessarily belong to dyes. Dye must have a chromophore and auxochrome group. Dye contained in the ink should also have water-soluble group such as sulfonic acid group.

Natural dyes are dyes obtained from animals, plants and minerals. According to sources they can be divided into:
1    Plant dyes; dyes extracted from the roots, stems, leaves and fruit of some plants such as indigo extracted from the leaves of indigo (blue); curcumin extracted from turmeric (yellow); alizarin extracted from madder (red) and so on;
2    Animal dyes; dyes extracted from animal body such as carmine extracted from cochineal, etc;
3    Mineral dyes; dyes extracted from the colored inorganic substance of mineral such as chrome yellow, ultramarine blue, brown and other manganese. Owing to its various disadvantages compared with artificial dyes such as incomplete chromatography, application inconvenience and poor fastness, most natural dyes have been eliminated except for a few still in use.

Synthetic dyes, also known as "artificial dyes." is mainly made through the chemical processing of coal tar (or oil processing) fractionation products (such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and carbazole, etc.), sometimes are also known as coal tar dyes. Since the earliest several synthetic dyes all took aniline as raw material, it is also known as "aniline dyes." Compared with the natural dyes, synthetic dyes have various kinds with complete chromatography and most of them being colorful, washable and being able to be produced in large scale. Thus, almost all of the current so-called dye refers to synthetic dyes with its dyeing products being one of the common samples of Forensic evidence.

There are two ways for classifications of dyes:
The first type is the basic chemical taxonomy based on the chromophore. According to this, dyes can be classified into azo dyes, sulfur dyes, anthraquinone dyes, indigo dyes, heterocyclic dyes and phthalocyanine dyes, 10 categories in total.

The second type is based on the property of the dye to the fiber or coloring properties. Based on this, the dyes can be divided into acid dyes, neutral dyes, azoic dyes, basic dyes, cationic dyes, direct dyes, reactive dyes, sulfur dyes, vat dyes and other dyes, 14 categories in total.

There are various kinds of dyes of different properties and wide range of applications. However, dyes used as physical evidence are largely fixed in textile fibers or paper, or as a kind of organizational component of ink, printing ink and pen oil. Usually after extraction, it can subject to comparison testing using micro-chemical method, thin layer chromatography, liquid chromatography, UV - visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

The international development of dye was very rapid in 1970s while people have mainly focused on develop new varieties and improve quality since 1990s with the annual output being maintained at the level of 100 million tons.

Chinese dyes got rapid development in 1980s with the main focus being improving the quality after 1990 as well. The production output still maintain a certain growth rate with annual output being around 300,000 t. In 2000, the output is 315 600 t. Dyes used for textile dyeing account about 85% with the rest being used for the coloring of leather, plastic, paper and paint.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Orange 7
CAS:
633-96-5
MF:
C16H11N2NaO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Orange 2
CAS:
2646-17-5
MF:
C17H14N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 43
CAS:
15086-94-9
MF:
C20H8Br4O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Violet 2
CAS:
3248-91-7
MF:
C22H24ClN3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Blue 11
CAS:
2185-86-6
MF:
C29H32N3.Cl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-AMINO-2-METHYLANTHRAQUINONE
CAS:
82-28-0
MF:
C15H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Yellow 56
CAS:
2481-94-9
MF:
C16H19N3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Red 9
CAS:
569-61-9
MF:
C19H17N3.ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Crystal Violet
CAS:
548-62-9
MF:
C25H30ClN3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT FAST BROWN M
CAS:
2429-82-5
MF:
C29H19N5Na2O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tartrazine
CAS:
1934-21-0
MF:
C16H9N4Na3O9S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Brown 14
CAS:
5850-16-8
MF:
C26H16N4Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Red 87
CAS:
548-26-5
MF:
C20H6Br4Na2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Red 27
CAS:
915-67-3
MF:
C20H11N2Na3O10S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Blue 119
CAS:
1324-80-7
MF:
C21H14NNaO6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fuchsin Acid
CAS:
3244-88-0
MF:
C20H17N3Na2O9S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
LIGHT GREEN SF YELLOWISH
CAS:
93942-43-9
MF:
C37H34N2Na2O9S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Yellow 33
CAS:
8003-22-3
MF:
C18H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID BLUE 113
CAS:
3351-05-1
MF:
C32H21N5Na2O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Green 50
CAS:
3087-16-9
MF:
C27H25N2NaO7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Green 25
CAS:
4403-90-1
MF:
C28H20N2Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline
CAS:
89-63-4
MF:
C6H5ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Disperse Red 11
CAS:
2872-48-2
MF:
C15H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID RED 88
CAS:
1658-56-6
MF:
C20H13N2NaO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 41
CAS:
3248-93-9
MF:
C20H19N3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 23
CAS:
85-86-9
MF:
C22H16N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID RED 151
CAS:
6406-56-0
MF:
C22H15N4NaO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
NEUTRAL RED IODIDE
CAS:
34038-87-4
MF:
C15H17IN4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Chloro-2-methylaniline
CAS:
87-60-5
MF:
C7H8ClN
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sulphur Black 1
CAS:
1326-82-5
MF:
C6H4N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 27
CAS:
1320-06-5
MF:
C26H24N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 1
CAS:
1229-55-6
MF:
C17H14N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride
CAS:
445-03-4
MF:
C7H5ClF3N
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 24
CAS:
85-83-6
MF:
C24H20N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid blue 1
CAS:
129-17-9
MF:
C27H31N2NaO6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Orange 10
CAS:
1936-15-8
MF:
C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
RHODAMINE 110
CAS:
13558-31-1
MF:
C20H15ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Blue 17
CAS:
92-31-9
MF:
C15H16ClN3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ORANGE I
CAS:
523-44-4
MF:
C16H11N2NaO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ETHYL VIOLET
CAS:
2390-59-2
MF:
C31H42ClN3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline
CAS:
99-55-8
MF:
C7H8N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Disperse Blue 3
CAS:
2475-46-9
MF:
C17H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Orange 14
CAS:
10127-02-3
MF:
C34H40Cl4N6Zn
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline
CAS:
99-52-5
MF:
C7H8N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Vat Violet 10
CAS:
128-64-3
MF:
C34H16O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Indigo
CAS:
482-89-3
MF:
C16H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Rhodamine B
CAS:
81-88-9
MF:
C28H31ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Benzonitrile
CAS:
100-47-0
MF:
C7H5N
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Red 5
CAS:
553-24-2
MF:
C15H17ClN4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Red 92
CAS:
18472-87-2
MF:
C20H2Br4Cl4Na2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Green 1
CAS:
19381-50-1
MF:
C30H15FeN3Na3O15S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Red 94
CAS:
632-69-9
MF:
C20H2Cl4I4Na2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BRILLIANT YELLOW
CAS:
3051-11-4
MF:
C26H18N4Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ORANGE G
CAS:
1936-96-5
MF:
C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole
CAS:
1747-60-0
MF:
C8H8N2OS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
METANIL YELLOW
CAS:
587-98-4
MF:
C18H14N3NaO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Blue 129
CAS:
6397-02-0
MF:
C23H19N2NaO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Direct Black 38
CAS:
1937-37-7
MF:
C34H25N9Na2O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Xylenol Orange sodium salt
CAS:
63721-83-5
MF:
C31H31N2NaO13S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Disperse Red 54
CAS:
12217-86-6
MF:
C19H18ClN5O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-amino-4-(ethylamino)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carbonitrile
CAS:
62570-50-7
MF:
C17H13N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Black 1
CAS:
1064-48-8
MF:
C22H14N6Na2O9S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AURAMINE O
CAS:
2465-27-2
MF:
C17H22ClN3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Blue 83
CAS:
6104-59-2
MF:
C45H44N3NaO7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Violet 17
CAS:
4129-84-4
MF:
C41H44N3NaO6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CI 63010
CAS:
2861-02-1
MF:
C14H8N2Na2O10S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Black 234
CAS:
157577-99-6
MF:
C34H26N10Na2O9S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tracid Brilliant Red B
CAS:
6416-66-6
MF:
C29H20ClN3Na2O10S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Blue 90
CAS:
6104-58-1
MF:
C47H48N3NaO7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Rhodamine 6G
CAS:
989-38-8
MF:
C28H31ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID RED 13
CAS:
2302-96-7
MF:
C20H12N2Na2O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methylene Blue
CAS:
61-73-4
MF:
C16H18ClN3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLORAZOL VIOLET N
CAS:
2586-60-9
MF:
C32H22N6Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DIRECT PURE YELLOW 5G
CAS:
10130-29-7
MF:
C24H19N4NaO5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID VIOLET 7
CAS:
4321-69-1
MF:
C20H16N4Na2O9S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DISPERSE ORANGE 13
CAS:
6253-10-7
MF:
C22H16N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Green 1
CAS:
633-03-4
MF:
C27H34N2O4S
Chemical Name:
Solvent Yellow 82
CAS:
12227-67-7
Chemical Name:
Solvent Black 27
CAS:
12237-22-8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Green 4
CAS:
2437-29-8
MF:
C52H54N4O12
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid chrome blue K
CAS:
3270-25-5
MF:
C16H9N2Na3O12S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Orange IV
CAS:
554-73-4
MF:
C18H14N3NaO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID BLUE 119
CAS:
30586-13-1
MF:
C37H29N3O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Eriochrome Black T
CAS:
1787-61-7
MF:
C20H12N3NaO7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Iodo-2-nitroaniline
CAS:
20691-72-9
MF:
C6H5IN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Red 26
CAS:
4477-79-6
MF:
C25H22N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Black 3
CAS:
4197-25-5
MF:
C29H24N6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone
CAS:
53411-33-9
MF:
C15H10Cl4N4O
Chemical Name:
Solvent Violet 36
CAS:
61951-89-1
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Basic Red 2
CAS:
477-73-6
MF:
C20H19ClN4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACID BLUE 120
CAS:
3529-01-9
MF:
C33H23N5Na2O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,5-Dichloroaniline
CAS:
95-82-9
MF:
C6H5Cl2N
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Disperse Yellow 54
CAS:
12223-85-7
MF:
C18H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride
CAS:
2318-25-4
MF:
C7H14ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Solvent Yellow 2
CAS:
60-11-7
MF:
C14H15N3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CI 13015
CAS:
2706-28-7
MF:
C12H9N3Na2O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
EOSIN
CAS:
17372-87-1
MF:
C20H6Br4Na2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sudan I
CAS:
842-07-9
MF:
C16H12N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Disperse Yellow 3
CAS:
2832-40-8
MF:
C15H15N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acid Yellow 220
CAS:
70851-34-2
MF:
C46H32Cl2CoN8Na4O14S2