Basic information Content analysis Toxicity Utilization limitation Chemical properties Application Preparation Category Toxic grading Acute toxicity Flammability hazard characteristics Storage Extinguishing agent Safety Supplier Related
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Methylparaben

Basic information Content analysis Toxicity Utilization limitation Chemical properties Application Preparation Category Toxic grading Acute toxicity Flammability hazard characteristics Storage Extinguishing agent Safety Supplier Related

Methylparaben Basic information

Product Name:
Methylparaben
Synonyms:
  • AKOS BBS-00004393
  • 4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenol
  • 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID METHYL ESTER
  • 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID METYL ESTER
  • 4-(carbomethoxy)phenol
  • METHYLIS PARAHYDROXYBENZOAS
  • METHYLPARABEN
  • Methyl parasept
CAS:
99-76-3
MF:
C8H8O3
MW:
152.15
EINECS:
202-785-7
Product Categories:
  • API
  • Other APIs
  • Aromatic Esters
  • Antioxidant
  • Biochemistry
  • Cosmetics
  • -
  • Color Former & Related Compounds
  • Developer
  • Functional Materials
  • Aromatics
Mol File:
99-76-3.mol
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Methylparaben Chemical Properties

Melting point:
125-128 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
298.6 °C
Density 
1,46g/cm
vapor pressure 
0.000005 hPa (20 °C)
FEMA 
2710 | METHYL P-HYDROXYBENZOATE
refractive index 
1.4447 (estimate)
Flash point:
280°C
storage temp. 
0-6°C
solubility 
ethanol: soluble0.1M, clear, colorless
pka
pKa 8.15(H2O,t =20.0) (Uncertain)
form 
Crystalline Powder
color 
White to almost white
PH
5.8 (H2O, 20°C) (saturated solution)
Water Solubility 
Slightly soluble in water.
FreezingPoint 
131℃
Merck 
14,6107
BRN 
509801
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases.
InChIKey
LXCFILQKKLGQFO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
99-76-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, methyl ester(99-76-3)
EPA Substance Registry System
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, methyl ester(99-76-3)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Xi,Xn
Risk Statements 
36/37/38-20/21/22-36
Safety Statements 
26-36-24/25-39
RIDADR 
UN 2769
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
DH2450000
Autoignition Temperature
>600 °C
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29182930
Hazardous Substances Data
99-76-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 orally in Rabbit: 2100 mg/kg

MSDS

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Methylparaben Usage And Synthesis

Content analysis

Method one: determinate according to the content analysis method in "butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (07002)". Per mL 1 mol/L sodium hydroxide is equivalent to the product (C8H8O3) 152.2mg.
Method two: Take 0.1 g (accurate to 1 mg) of the sample previously dried on silica gel for 5 h and move into a 300 ml flask with a glass plug. Plus l mol/L sodium hydroxide 10ml, heated in the water bath for 15min. After cooling, add 0.1mol/L potassium bromate 0.00ml, potassium bromide 5.0g and l mol/L hydrochloric acid 30ml. Put 15min in the dark room after sealing. Add potassium iodide 1 g, shake the flask vigorously, with 0.1mol/L sodium thiosulfate titration, with starch test solution (TS-235) as an indicator. Per ml 0.1mol/L potassium bromate is equivalent to the product (C8H8O3) 25.36mg.

Toxicity

ADI 0~10mg/kg(FAO/WHO,2001).
GRAS(FDA,§184.1490,2000).
LD503000mg/kg(Dog, mouth)

Utilization limitation

FAO/WHO (1984): Jam, jelly, 1000mg/kg (single or with benzoate, sorbic acid and potassium sorbate).
EEC(1990,mg/kg): For use in pigment solutions, flavor syrups, coffee extracts, frozen drinks, fruit, glucose and soft drinks, pickled fish, salad, sauce, snack food, concentrated soup and so on, limited to GMP; Beer 70; Snack cereals and soup concentrate 175, the same as "07018 p-hydroxybenzoate".
HACSG is listed as a restricted list.
FDA,§184.1490(2000):0.1%.

Chemical properties

White needle crystal; Slightly soluble in water, easily soluble in ethanol, ether, acetone and other organic solvents.

Application

  • Antioxidants.
  • Antimicrobial agents for medicine and organic synthesis.
  • Anti-mildew in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
  • As a preservative antiseptic agents in the pharmaceutical industry, also for organic synthesis and food, spices, film and other preservative additives.
  • Similar products produced by similar production methods, like ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (paraben B) and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (Nepalese c), are also disinfectant preservatives.The products are irritating to the skin.

Preparation

The drug is esterified with p-hydroxybenzoic acid and methanol. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid was added to excess methanol to dissolve, stirring and adding concentrated sulfuric acid slowly. After heating and refluxing 10h, pour into the water to precipitate crystallization, then washed with water, sodium carbonate solution and water, finally obtain the crude product. Recrystallize from water or 25% ethanol to obtain finished product. The yield was 85%. Raw material consumption (kg/t): p-hydroxybenzoic acid 1200, methanol 1000.

Category

Toxic Chemicals

Toxic grading

Moderate toxicity

Acute toxicity

Abdomen-mouse LD50: 960 mg/kg

Flammability hazard characteristics

Combustible, excretes spicy smoke from fireground

Storage

Ventilated , low temperature and dry warehouse.

Extinguishing agent

Water, carbon dioxide, dry powder, sand.

Chemical Properties

Colorless crystals or white, crystallinepowder; odorless or faint characteristic odor; slightburning taste. Soluble in alcohol,ether; slightly soluble in water, benzene, and carbontetrachloride.

Chemical Properties

Methylparaben occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It is odorless or almost odorless and has a slight burning taste.

Chemical Properties

Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate is odorless or has a faint characteristic odor and a slight burning taste. Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate is more commonly known as methyl paraben and is an ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

Occurrence

Reported present in cloudberry, yellow passion fruit juice, white wine, botrytised wine and Bourbon vanilla.

Uses

It is used as preservative in foods, beverages and cosmetics.

Uses

As preservative in foods, beverages and cosmetics.

Uses

parabens is one of the most commonly used group of preservatives in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Parabens provide bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity against a diverse number of organisms, and are considered safe for use in cosmetics, particularly in light of their low sensitizing potential. An evaluation of preservatives for use in leave-on cosmetic preparations lists parabens among the least sensitizing. The range of concentrations used in cosmetics varies between 0.03 and 0.30 percent, depending on the conditions for use and the product to which the paraben is added.

Uses

Methylparaben is an antimicrobial agent which is a white free-flowing powder. it is active against yeast and molds over a wide ph range. see parabens.

Definition

ChEBI: A 4-hydroxybenzoate ester resulting from the formal condensation of the carboxy group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol. It is the most frequently used antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics. It occurs naturally in several fruits, particularly in blu berries.

Preparation

Produced by the methanol esterification of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid. The materials are heated for distillation in a glass-lined reactor under reflux. The acid is then neutralized with caustic soda and the product is crystallized by cooling. The crystallized product is centrifuged, washed, dried under vacuum, milled and blended, all in corrosion-resistant equipment to avoid metallic contamination.

Production Methods

Methylparaben is prepared by the esterification of p-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 2.6 ppm.

Hazard

Toxic. Use in foods restricted to 0.1%.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Methylparaben is widely used as an antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics, food products, and pharmaceutical formulations; see Table I. It may be used either alone or in combination with other methylparaben is the most frequently used antimicrobial preservative.
The parabens are effective over a wide pH range and have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, although they are most effective against yeasts and molds. Antimicrobial activity increases as the chain length of the alkyl moiety is increased, but aqueous solubility decreases; therefore a mixture of parabens is frequently used to provide effective preservation. Preservative efficacy is also improved by the addition of propylene glycol (2–5%), or by using parabens in combination with other antimicrobial agents such as imidurea;
Owing to the poor solubility of the parabens, paraben salts (particularly the sodium salt) are more frequently used in formulations. However, this raises the pH of poorly buffered formulations.
Methylparaben (0.18%) together with propylparaben (0.02%) has been used for the preservation of various parenteral pharmaceutical formulations;

Contact allergens

This substance is one of the parabens family. Parabens are esters formed by p-hydroxybenzoic acid and an alcohol. They are largely used as biocides in cosmetics and toiletries, medicaments, or food. They have synergistic power with other biocides. Parabens can induce allergic contact dermatitis, mainly in chronic dermatitis and wounded skin.

Safety

Methylparaben and other parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. Although parabens have also been used as preservatives in injections and ophthalmic preparations, they are now generally regarded as being unsuitable for these types of formulations owing to the irritant potential of the parabens. These experiences may depend on immune responses to enzymatically formed metabolites of the parabens in the skin.
Parabens are nonmutagenic, nonteratogenic, and noncarcinogenic. Sensitization to the parabens is rare, and these compounds do not exhibit significant levels of photocontact sensitization or phototoxicity.
Hypersensitivity reactions to parabens, generally of the delayed type and appearing as contact dermatitis, have been reported. However, given the widespread use of parabens as preservatives, such reactions are relatively uncommon; the classification of overstated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions following injection of preparations containing parabens have also been reported.
Delayed-contact dermatitis occurs more frequently when parabens are used topically, but has also been reported to occur after oral administration.
Unexpectedly, preparations containing parabens may be used by patients who have reacted previously with contact dermatitis provided they are applied to another, unaffected, site. This has been termed the paraben paradox.
Concern has been expressed over the use of methylparaben in infant parenteral products because bilirubin binding may be affected, which is potentially hazardous in hyperbilirubinemic neonates.
The WHO has set an estimated total acceptable daily intake for methyl-, ethyl-, and propylparabens at up to 10 mg/kg bodyweight.
LD50 (dog, oral): 3.0 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.96 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, SC): 1.20 g/kg

storage

Aqueous solutions of methylparaben at pH 3–6 may be sterilized by autoclaving at 120°C for 20 minutes, without decomposition. Aqueous solutions at pH 3–6 are stable (less than 10% decomposition) for up to about 4 years at room temperature, while aqueous solutions at pH 8 or above are subject to rapid hydrolysis (10% or more after about 60 days storage at room temperature);
Methylparaben should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

Fractionally crystallise the ester from its melt, and recrystallise it from *benzene, then from *benzene/MeOH and dry it over CaCl2 in a vacuum desiccator. [Beilstein 10 IV 360.]

Incompatibilities

The antimicrobial activity of methylparaben and other parabens is considerably reduced in the presence of nonionic surfactants, such as polysorbate 80, as a result of micellization.However, propylene glycol (10%) has been shown to potentiate the antimicrobial activity of the parabens in the presence of nonionic surfactants and prevents the interaction between methylparaben and polysorbate 80.
Incompatibilities with other substances, such as bentonite, magnesium trisilicate,talc,tragacanth,sodium alginate, essential oils,sorbitol,and atropine,have been reported. It also reacts with various sugars and related sugar alcohols. Absorption of methylparaben by plastics has also been reported; the amount absorbed is dependent upon the type of plastic and the vehicle. It has been claimed that low-density and high-density polyethylene bottles do not absorb methylparaben.
Methylparaben is discolored in the presence of iron and is subject to hydrolysis by weak alkalis and strong acids.

Regulatory Status

Methylparaben and propylparaben are affirmed GRAS Direct Food Substances in the USA at levels up to 0.1%. All esters except the benzyl ester are allowed for injection in Japan. In cosmetics, the EU and Brazil allow use of each paraben at 0.4%, but the total of all parabens may not exceed 0.8%. The upper limit in Japan is 1.0%.
Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM, IV, and SC injections; inhalation preparations; ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, tablets, solutions and suspensions; otic, rectal, topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

MethylparabenSupplier

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Product Name:Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, 99%
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