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Thapsigargin

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Thapsigargin Basic information

Product Name:
Thapsigargin
Synonyms:
  • THAPSIGARGIN
  • Octanoic acid, (3S,3aR,4S,6S,6aR,7S,8S,9bS)-6-(acetyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5,6,6a,7,8,9b-decahydro-3,3a-dihydroxy-3,6,9-trimethyl-8-[[(2Z)-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-buten-1-yl]oxy]-2-oxo-4-(1-oxobutoxy)azuleno[4,5-b]f uran-7-yl ester
  • (3S,3aR,4S,6S,6AR,7S,8S,9bS)-6-(Acetyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5,6,6a,7,8,9b-decahydro-3,3a-dihydroxy-3,6,9-trimethyl-8-[[(2Z)-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl]oxy]-2-oxo-4-(1-oxobutoxy)azuleno[4,5-b]furan-7-yl octanoate
  • Octanoic acid [(3S)-6α-acetoxy-2,3,3a,4,5,6,6aα,7,8,9bβ-decahydro-3β,3aα-dihydroxy-3,6,9-trimethyl-8β-[[(Z)-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl]oxy]-2-oxo-4β-(1-oxobutoxy)azuleno[4,5-b]furan]-7α-yl ester
  • Thapsigargin,97%
  • Octanoic Acid (3S,3aR,4S,6S,6aR,7S,8S,9bS)-6-(Acetyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5,6,6a,7,8,9b- decahydro-3,3a-dihydroxy-3,6,9-triMethyl-8-[[(2Z)-2-Methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl]oxy]-2-oxo-4-(1-oxobutoxy)azuleno[4,5-b]furan-7-yl Ester
  • Octanoic Acid [3S-[3α,3aβ,4α,6β,6aβ,7β,8α(Z),9bα]]-6-(Acetyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5,6,6a,7,8,9b-decahydro-3,3a-dihydroxy-3,6,9-triMethyl-8-[(2-Methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)oxy]-2-oxo-4-(1-oxobutoxy)azuleno[4,5-b]furan-7-yl Ester
  • Thapsigargin (TG)
CAS:
67526-95-8
MF:
C34H50O12
MW:
650.75
EINECS:
614-076-3
Product Categories:
  • plantgrowth
  • Adenosinetriphosphatase (microsomal calcium)Cell Signaling and Neuroscience
  • Antitumor Agents
  • Intracellular Calcium RegulatorsCancer Research
  • Intracellular Calcium Signaling
  • Therapy Adjuncts
  • A to
  • Enzyme Inhibitors by Enzyme
  • Calcium signaling
  • Signalling
  • Apoptosis
  • Heterocycles
  • Inhibitors
  • Intermediates & Fine Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
Mol File:
67526-95-8.mol
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Thapsigargin Chemical Properties

Boiling point:
597.77°C (rough estimate)
Density 
1.1521 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
1.6390 (estimate)
RTECS 
RH0325700
storage temp. 
-20°C
solubility 
DMSO: soluble
form 
liquid or film
pka
10.57±0.70(Predicted)
color 
Colorless
Sensitive 
Light Sensitive
Stability:
Stable for 1 year from date of purchase as supplied. Solutions in DMSO or ethanol may be stored at -20° for up to 1 week.
CAS DataBase Reference
67526-95-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Xn,T
Risk Statements 
36/37/38-42
Safety Statements 
26-36/37/39
RIDADR 
UN 2811 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 
3
HS Code 
29181990

MSDS

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Thapsigargin Usage And Synthesis

Description

Thapsigargin is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the umbelliferous plant Thapsia garganica. It is a non-competitive, cell permeable inhibitor of calcium transport by SERCAs (IC50 values are cell type-dependent and range from ~2-80 nM). This tumor promoter releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores by specifically inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase; it does not directly affect plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases, Ins 1,4,5-P3 production or protein kinase C activity. This effect is a result of emptying the intracellular calcium stores, which leads to a chain of events that causes apoptosis.

Chemical Properties

Thapsigargin (TG) is colourless film. It is extracted from the plant Thapsia garganica L. with methanol and purified by HPLC. TG is a tumor promoting plant sesquiterpene lactone extract with a unique biological activity as Ca2+ -ATPase inhibitors in animal cells. It is a skin irritant, a platelet activating, inflammatory and tumor promoting agent. TG is toxic and a possible carcinogen.

Uses

THAPSIGARGIN is a widely used inhibitor of the ubiquitous sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases in mammalian cells. It acts as a potent, cell-permeable, IP3-independent intracellular calcium releaser that blocks the transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ induced by angiostatin and endostatin. It induces apoptosis by disrupting intracellular free Ca2+ levels.

Definition

ChEBI: Thapsigargin is an organic heterotricyclic compound that is a hexa-oxygenated 6,7-guaianolide isolated fron the roots of Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae. A potent skin irritant, it is used in traditional medicine as a counter-irritant. Thapsigargin inhibits Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase mediated uptake of calcium ions into sarcoplasmic reticulum and is used in experimentation examining the impacts of increasing cytosolic calcium concentrations. It has a role as an EC 3.6.3.8 (Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase) inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker. It is a sesquiterpene lactone, an organic heterotricyclic compound and a butyrate ester.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Thapsigargin is an effective inhibitor of calcium ion pumps located on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomes of skeletal, cardiac, muscle and brain tissues. The inhibition of calcium ion pumps causes intracellular increase of calcium ion levels. It was found that thapsigargin at 100 nM concentration effectively inhibited the SR Ca2+- adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Thapsigargin was also reported to be effective in blocking autophagy by interfering with the autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

Mode of action

The actual mechanism of action of thapsigargin is thought actually to block calcium channels in an open conformation that results in excess calcium entry from outside the cell. Excess calcium activates DNAses and precipitates the natural death sequence of the cells.Scientists are now thinking of modifying thapsigargin in such a way thatit will kill prostate cells preferentially and will not penetrate healthy cells elsewhere in the body.At the same time, they are determining whether this drug can also induce cell death in breast cancer cells.

References

1) Treiman et al. (1998), A tool coming of age: thapsigargin as an inhibitor of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases; Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 19 131 2) Zhou et al. (2009), Autophagy-mediated insulin receptor down-regulation contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced insulin resistance; Mol. Pharmacol., 76 596

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