Chemical Properties Uses Application Preparation Content analysis Toxicity Usage limit
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Levulinic acid

Chemical Properties Uses Application Preparation Content analysis Toxicity Usage limit
Product Name
Levulinic acid
CAS No.
123-76-2
Chemical Name
Levulinic acid
Synonyms
LA;LEVA;aevuL;usafcz-1;levulinic;USAF cz-1;FEMA 2627;4-oxovaleric;laevulicacid;levulic acid
CBNumber
CB3213533
Molecular Formula
C5H8O3
Formula Weight
116.12
MOL File
123-76-2.mol
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Levulinic acid Property

Melting point:
30-33 °C (lit.)
Boiling point:
245-246 °C (lit.)
Density 
1.134 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 102 °C)
FEMA 
2627 | LEVULINIC ACID
refractive index 
n20/D 1.439(lit.)
Flash point:
280 °F
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
675g/l
pka
pKa 4.65(H2O,t = 25,c=0.03-0.001) (Uncertain)
form 
Liquid After Melting
color 
Clear yellow
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water ( 675g/L at 20°C).
Sensitive 
Light Sensitive
JECFA Number
606
Merck 
14,5472
BRN 
506796
InChIKey
JOOXCMJARBKPKM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
123-76-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-(123-76-2)
EPA Substance Registry System
Levulinic acid (123-76-2)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
Xn,C
Risk Statements 
22-36/37/38-34-R34-R22
Safety Statements 
26-45-36/37/39-S45-S36/37/39-S26
RIDADR 
3261
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
OI1575000
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
8
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
29183000
Toxicity
LD50 orally in Rabbit: 1850 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 5000 mg/kg
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Warning
Hazard statements

H302Harmful if swallowed

H314Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

H315Causes skin irritation

H318Causes serious eye damage

H319Causes serious eye irritation

Precautionary statements

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P309IF exposed or if you feel unwell:

P310Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.

P305+P351+P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.14254
Product name
Levulinic acid
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
100 g
Price
$28.58
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
41474
Product name
Levulinic acid
Purity
analytical standard
Packaging
100mg
Price
$55.2
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
W262706
Product name
Levulinic acid
Purity
≥97%, FG
Packaging
1 kg
Price
$70
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
W262701
Product name
Levulinic acid
Purity
natural, 99%, FG
Packaging
100 g
Price
$70
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.14254
Product name
Levulinic acid
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
500 g
Price
$85.01
Updated
2021/03/22
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Levulinic acid Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Chemical Properties

White flake crystals, hygroscopic. clear yellowish liquid after melting.It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, ether organic solvents.

Levulinic acid conventionally is derived from refined petroleum but technological advances now permit the production of levulinic acid from biomass. Suitable feedstocks from the forest industry include pulp and paper mill residues, sawmill and logging residues, and solid municipal waste. It takes approximately 2 kg of cellulose to produce 1 kg of levulinic acid (US Department of Energy 1998). Obtaining enough raw materials to support the production of levulinic acid from biomass is not a foreseeable concern; Canada currently produces over 75 million tonnes of logging residues annually which, in turn, could produce 19 million tonnes of levulinic acid.

Uses

Levulinic acid is a biomass product and its derivatives, such as ethyl levulinate and alkyl levulinate, can be used as fuel additives.
levulinic acid is used for calcium levulinate in pharmaceuticals, as esters in solvents and plasticizers, and for making valerolactone. As its uses expand, it will probably be made from cellulosic wastes. Mesitonic acid, a homolog of levulinic acid is obtained by boiing mesityl oxide with KCN.
Hydrogenation of levulinic acid can produce other useful chemicals. Valeric-g-lactone, which is an effective solvent with extensive uses, can be obtained in very high yields. This compound may be hydrogenated to 1,4-pentandiol, which upon dehydration yields 1,3-pentadine (piperylene). Piperylene is known to polymerize to a rubbery mass and is therefore a source of synthetic rubber (Ghorpade and Hanna 1997).
Levulinic acid is a precursor for the synthesis of useful intermediates such as γ-valerolactone, ethyl levulinate, pentanoic acid and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran. Derivatization and esterification of levulinic acid results in potential biofuels.
It can also be used in:
The preparation of catalytic composite to synthesize 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural.
The synthesis of a commercial fragrance, fraistone.
The synthesis of pyrrolidone derivatives via reductive amination.
The total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan.

Application

It can be used as the raw materials of medicine, spices and paint, and used as solvent.
This product has wide applications. Levulinic acid can be used as both a carboxylic acid and can also be used as a ketone for reaction for making various kinds of products through esterification, halogenation, hydrogenation, oxidation dehydrogenation, condensation, etc., including resins, pharmaceuticals, spices, solvents, rubber and plastic additives, lubricants additives, surfactants and so on. In the pharmaceutical industry, its calcium salt (calcium fructose) can be used for intravenous injection. As a nutritional medicine, it helps to boost the formation of bone and maintain the normal excitability of nerves and muscles. It can also used for the production of indomethacin and plant hormones. Levulinic acid manufactured bisphenol acid can be made of water-soluble resin, used in the paper industry to produce filter paper. Levulinic acid is also an intermediate of pesticides and dyes.
Used for biochemical reagents, but also for organic synthesis
It can be used as an important chemical raw material or solvents. It can be used for the manufacturing of medicine (intravenous injection, indomethacin, etc.), resin (bisphenol acid water-soluble resin), spices (spices or tobacco spices), paint, paint, pesticides, and surfactants.
It can be used for biochemical research; manufacturing of esters and drugs. It is also the inhibitor of chlorophyll synthesis.

Preparation

The residue during the manufacturing of furfural with cotton seed shell or corncob sugar (furfural residue) or waste taro residue, through pressured hydrolysis with dilute acid, can be used to produce levulinic acid. The furfural residue was added to 10% dilute hydrochloric acid, the solidified solution was 1: 1.75, mixed and put into the hydrolysis pot, steamed at a pressure of 0.2MPa for 8-10 h. The diluted solution is then filtered and concentrated to a concentration of about 50%. It is further subject to vacuum distillation for collecting the fraction above 130 ℃ (2.67kPa) to obtain the finished product. Raw material consumption quota: potato tacar 7,000 kg/t, hydrochloric acid (fold 100%) 1800kg/t. Another method is manufacturing through the rearrangement and hydrolysis of sugar alcohol.
4% hydrochloric acid solution was added to the reaction pot, stir and heat to 97-100 ℃, slowly add the mixture of furfuryl alcohol, ethanol and water. After addition, stir 30 min. The filtrate was concentrated at 80 ° C (21.3 kPa) under reduced pressure to give crude levulinic acid. Then apply vacuum distillation, collect the fraction of 160-170 ° C (2.67kPa), and then re-distill once, to obtain the refined levulinic acid with the yield of about 75%.

Content analysis

Accurately weigh about 1.0 g of the sample, and put it into a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 75~100ml water, add phenolphthalein test solution; apply 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide for titration to until it began to appear pink and maintain 15 s. Each mL of 0.5mol/L sodium hydroxide solution is equivalent to 58.08mg of the goods.

Toxicity

GRAS (FEMA).

Usage limit

FEMA (mg/kg): Beverage, cold drink, 14.0; Candy, baked goods, 53.0; Gelatin, pudding, 4.0.
FDA, §172.515 (2000): take proper amount as limit.

Description

Levulinic acid has a tart, whiskey taste. It may be synthesized by the action of more or less concentrated HCL on sucrose, glucose, or fructose; hence, its reported presence in caramels.

Chemical Properties

Levulinic acid has a tart, whiskey taste.

Occurrence

Reported found in papaya, wheat bread, rice, sake and Chinese quince.

Uses

Replenisher (calcium).

Preparation

By action of more or less concentrated HCl on sucrose, glucose or fructose; hence, its reported presence in caramels.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 70 ppm: acidic, sweet, creamy and slight dairy.

Synthesis Reference(s)

Tetrahedron Letters, 30, p. 5329, 1989 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93778-5

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Levulinic acid Suppliers

Langfang Hawk Technology & Development Co., Ltd.
Tel
0316-2224727-
Email
fenghe0820@hawk-chinachem.com
Country
China
ProdList
22
Advantage
58
Shandong Xinhua Pharmceutical Co.,LTD
Tel
0533-2196801
Fax
0533-2196817
Email
yaojianyong@xhzy.com
Country
China
ProdList
71
Advantage
60
卡托研究化学公司
Tel
020-81215950- ;020-81215950-
Email
customer@uwalab.com;customer@uwalab.com
Country
United States
ProdList
10423
Advantage
58
Wuhan kemike Biomedical Technology Co., Ltd
Tel
027-87747081-
Email
1344475572@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
4278
Advantage
58
Hubei yongkuo Technology Co., Ltd
Tel
027-59223108- ;027-59223108-
Fax
027-59223108
Email
1248580099@qq.com;1248580055@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
8908
Advantage
58
Wuhan kamik Technology Co., Ltd
Tel
Email
201981259@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
4642
Advantage
58
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
Fax
86-10-82849933
Email
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
96815
Advantage
76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
21-61259100-
Fax
86-21-61259102
Email
sh@meryer.com
Country
China
ProdList
40264
Advantage
62
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd.
Tel
821-50328103-801
Fax
86-21-50328109
Email
3bsc@sina.com
Country
China
ProdList
15877
Advantage
69
Alfa Aesar
Tel
400-610-6006; 021-67582000
Fax
021-67582001/03/05
Email
saleschina@alfa-asia.com
Country
China
ProdList
30159
Advantage
84
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View Lastest Price from Levulinic acid manufacturers

Wuhan wingroup Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
Product
Levulinic acid 123-76-2
Price
US $5.00/IU
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
50 tons
Release date
2021-07-02
Baoji Guokang Healthchem co.,ltd
Product
Levulinic acid 123-76-2
Price
US $555.00/Kg/Bag
Min. Order
25Kg/Bag
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
20000T
Release date
2021-06-04
Wuhan Mulei New Material Technology Co. Ltd
Product
Levulinic acid 123-76-2
Price
US $20.00/Kg/Drum
Min. Order
25Kg/Drum
Purity
99.99%
Supply Ability
1 ton per week
Release date
2021-04-01

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