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Citronellal

Product Name
Citronellal
CAS No.
106-23-0
Chemical Name
Citronellal
Synonyms
Citronella;RHODINAL;3,7-dimethyl-6-octena;3,7-dimethyloct-6-enal;3,7-DIMETHYL-6-OCTENAL;Citronellel;CITRONELLAL NATURAL;CitroneL;FEMA 2307;d-rhodinal
CBNumber
CB3715673
Molecular Formula
C10H18O
Formula Weight
154.25
MOL File
106-23-0.mol
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Citronellal Property

Melting point:
-16°C (estimate)
Boiling point:
207 °C(lit.)
alpha 
D25 +11.50°
Density 
0.857 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor pressure 
14 hPa (88 °C)
FEMA 
2307 | CITRONELLAL
refractive index 
n20/D 1.451(lit.)
Flash point:
169 °F
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
Chloroform (Soluble), Methanol (Sparingly)
form 
Liquid
Specific Gravity
0.858 (20/4℃)
color 
Clear light yellow
PH
7 (H2O)
Odor
at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. sweet dry floral herbal waxy aldehydic citrus
Odor Type
floral
explosive limit
1.2-4.5%(V)
Water Solubility 
Slightly miscible with water and ethanol.
Sensitive 
Air Sensitive
Merck 
14,2329
JECFA Number
1220
BRN 
1720789
Stability:
Hygroscopic
InChIKey
NEHNMFOYXAPHSD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
LogP
3.62 at 25℃
CAS DataBase Reference
106-23-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
6-Octenal, 3,7-dimethyl-(106-23-0)
EPA Substance Registry System
Citronellal (106-23-0)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
Xn,Xi,N
Risk Statements 
38-43-51/53-36/37/38-22
Safety Statements 
36/37-61-37/39-26-36
RIDADR 
UN 3082 9/PG 3
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
RH2140000
8
Autoignition Temperature
202 °C
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29121900
Hazardous Substances Data
106-23-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 orally in Rabbit: 2420 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 2500 mg/kg
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Warning
Hazard statements

H315Causes skin irritation

H317May cause an allergic skin reaction

H319Causes serious eye irritation

Precautionary statements

P261Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

P264Wash skin thouroughly after handling.

P272Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P302+P352IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.

P305+P351+P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
W230715
Product name
(±)-Citronellal
Purity
natural,≥85%,FCC,FG
Packaging
1kg
Price
$185
Updated
2023/06/20
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
W230715
Product name
(±)-Citronellal
Purity
natural,≥85%,FCC,FG
Packaging
4kg
Price
$581
Updated
2023/06/20
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.14575
Product name
Citronellal
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
100mL
Price
$38.7
Updated
2023/06/20
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.14575
Product name
Citronellal
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
500mL
Price
$139
Updated
2023/06/20
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
27470
Product name
(±)-Citronellal
Purity
≥95.0%(GC)
Packaging
100mL
Price
$68
Updated
2023/06/20
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Citronellal Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Chemical Properties

clear light yellow liquid

Chemical Properties

Ceylon citronella (C. nardus) and Java citronella (C. winterianus) are both perennial grasses growing more than 1 m high. The herb is harvested two to three times a year in Ceylon. The freshly cut or partially dried herb is steam distilled. The plant yields the largest amount of essential oil at about its third year of growth. Citronella is also cultivated and distilled in Java, Guatemala, Taiwan, Hainan, Argentina and New Guinea. The Java-type essential oil is considered to be of superior quality over the Ceylon type. Citronella has a characteristic citronella, rose- and lemon-like odor. The Council of Europe (CoE, 2000) has described Ceylon citronella and Java Citronella separately.

Chemical Properties

Citronellal has an intense, lemon-, citronella-, rose-type odor.

Chemical Properties

(?)-Citronellal occurs in Java citronella oil at a concentration of 35%. Racemic citronellal is the main constituent of E. citriodora oil with a content of up to 85%.
Pure citronellal is a colorless liquid with a refreshing odor, reminiscent of lemon balm. Upon catalytic hydrogenation, citronellal yields dihydrocitronellal, citronellol, or dihydrocitronellol, depending on the reaction conditions. Protection of the aldehyde group, followed by addition of water to the double bond in the presence of mineral acids or ion-exchange resins results in the formation of 3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octan-l-al (hydroxydihydrocitronellal). Acid-catalyzed cyclization to isopulegol is an important step in the synthesis of (?)-menthol.

Occurrence

The d-form of citronellal has been reported in the oil of citronella (Ceylon, Jammus, Kaschmis), in the oil from leaves of Barosma pulchella, in the oil from roots of Phebalium nudum and in the oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Leptospermum citratum and Baeckea citriodora. The /-form is present in the oils of Backhousia citriodora var. A, E. citriodora, Litsea cubeba (fruits) and lemongrass. Citronellal is generally present also in the oils of lemon, mandarin, Lavandula delphinensis, Ocimum canum f. citrata and many others (Fenarolis Handbook of Flavor Ingredients, 1971).

Uses

rac-Citronellal is a monoterpenoid and the major isolate in citronella oil. Citronella oil is an essential oil bearing insecticidal properties. rac-Citronellal is also often used as a fragrance ingred ient.

Uses

citronella is used primarily as a fragrance (perfuming and masking), it also has tonic properties. It is derived from the essential oil of the Cymbopogon nardus plant, and its constituents include geraniol (approximately 60 percent), citronellal, camphene, limonene, linalool, and borneol.

Uses

Citronellal is a flavoring agent that is a liquid, faintly yellow with an intense odor resembling lemon, citronella, and rose. it is soluble in alcohol and most fixed oils, slightly soluble in mineral oil and pro- pylene glycol, and insoluble in water and glycerin. it is obtained by chemical synthesis; the aldehyde may be obtained from natural oils, such as citronella oil. it is also termed 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-a1.

Definition

ChEBI: A monoterpenoid, the main component of citronella oil which gives it its distinctive lemon aroma.

Preparation

Citronellal is still isolated from essential oils in considerable quantities; it is also produced synthetically.
1) Isolation from essential oils:(+)-Citronellal is obtained from citronella oils by fractional distillation. Racemic citronellal is isolated from E. citriodora oil; when necessary, it is purified by using an addition compound, for example, the bisulfite derivative.
2) Synthesis from geraniol or nerol: Racemic citronellal can be obtained by vaporphase rearrangement of geraniol or nerol in the presence of, for example, a barium-containing copper–chromium oxide catalyst.
3) Synthesis from citronellol: Racemic citronellal can also be obtained by dehydrogenation of citronellol under reduced pressure with a copper chromite catalyst.
4) Synthesis from citral: Selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal can be accomplished in the presence of a palladium catalyst in an alkaline alcoholic reaction medium. A continuously operating process for the hydrogenation on a palladium catalyst in the presence of trimethylamine has been developed.
5) Synthesis from myrcene: (+)- and (?)-Citronellal are available from myrcene via geranyldiethylamine, which is enantioselectively isomerized to (+)- or (?)-citronellalenamine. Hydrolysis yields pure (+)- or (?)-citronellal; see monograph menthol.

Essential oil composition

Citronella oil contains a number of fragrant fractions of which citronellal, geraniol and citronellol are the major components. Ceylon citronella oil contains 55 to 65% total acetylizable alcohols (calculated as citronellol) and 7 to 15% total aldehyde (calculated as citronellal). The main constituents are geraniol (18 to 20%), citronellol (6.4 to 8.4%), citronellal (5 to 15%), geranyl acetate (2%); limonene (9 to 11%) and methyl isoeugenol (7.2 to 11.3%). Other constituents are camphene, caryophyllene, linalool, citral (neral and geranial), methylheapenone, methyleugenol, l-borneol, nerol, eugenol and farnesol.* Java citronella oil contains not less than 35% alcohols (calculated as citronellol) and not less than 35% aldehydes (calculated as citronellal). The Java type appears to have higher concentrations of citronellol (35%) and geraniol (21%) than does the Ceylon type (citronellol 10% and geraniol 18%).

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 31 to 100 ppb

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: floral, green, rosy and citrus-lemon.

Synthesis Reference(s)

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 108, p. 7314, 1986 DOI: 10.1021/ja00283a029
Tetrahedron Letters, 30, p. 5677, 1989 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)76168-5
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 49, p. 2279, 1984 DOI: 10.1021/jo00186a038

General Description

(±)-Citronellal was studied for its fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea.

Flammability and Explosibility

Non flammable

Synthesis

Can be prepared by chemical synthesis or by fractional distillation of natural oils, such as citronella. Industrially prepared by hydrogenation of β-citronellol or by catalytic hydrogenation of citral; also in the laboratory by dehydration of hydroxydihydrocitronellal.

Metabolism

Feeding 50 g citronellal to rabbits was followed by the isolation of 13 g of a crystalline glucuronide, which proved to be p-menthane-3.8-diol-D-glucuronide. The citronellal appeared to have been cyclized and the glucuronide obtained was identical with that obtained on feeding p-menthane-3,8-diol (menthoglycol) (Kühn & Low, 1938). However, evidence was produced to show that the cyclization was not, strictly speaking, a biological reaction, but a chemical one which took place in the stomach under the influence of the gastric hydrochloric acid. The conjugation of the menthoglycol with glucuronic acid was, of course, a purely biological reaction. It was found that on shaking 20 g citronellal with 200 ml 0-5% HCl for 48 hr at 37 C, 12 g menthoglycol was formed (Kühn & Low, 1938).

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Citronellal Suppliers

Jiangxi Zhonghuan New Material Co., Ltd.
Tel
0796-8107286 13766287383
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2246992030@qq.com
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China
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Jiangxi Baolin Natural Spices Co.Ltd.
Tel
0796-8180428 13576833965
Fax
0796-8116585
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1510355607@qq.com
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China
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118
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Jishui County Yikang Natural Flavor Oil Refinery
Tel
0796-8128936 18296668815
Fax
0796-8128936
Email
1708484260@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
332
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58
Shanghai Jiulin Industrial Co., Ltd.
Tel
021-69920890-602 15155460207
Email
2937566114@qq.com
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China
ProdList
443
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58
Ji 'an trillion spice oil co. LTD
Tel
0796-0796-8110986 18979610200
Email
1053756189@qq.com
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China
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113
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58
Jiangxi Planty Manor Health Industry Co., Ltd.
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0796-18507969315 18507969315
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3686433662@qq.com
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China
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373
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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
010-82848833 400-666-7788
Fax
86-10-82849933
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jkinfo@jkchemical.com
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China
ProdList
96815
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Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
4006608290; 18621169109
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86-21-61259102
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market03@meryer.com
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China
ProdList
40241
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future industrial shanghai co., ltd
Tel
400-0066400 13621662912
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021-55660885
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sales@jonln.com
Country
China
ProdList
1998
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Alfa Aesar
Tel
400-6106006
Fax
021-67582001/03/05
Email
saleschina@alfa-asia.com
Country
China
ProdList
30132
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View Lastest Price from Citronellal manufacturers

WUHAN FORTUNA CHEMICAL CO., LTD
Product
Citronellal 106-23-0
Price
US $0.00/kg
Min. Order
1000kg
Purity
98.0%
Supply Ability
100ton/month
Release date
2023-01-14
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Product
Citronellal 106-23-0
Price
US $0.00-0.00/KG
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
500000kg
Release date
2022-12-15
Hebei Mojin Biotechnology Co., Ltd
Product
Citronellal 106-23-0
Price
US $0.00/KG
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
50000KG/month
Release date
2023-08-25

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