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Maleic acid

Product Name
Maleic acid
CAS No.
110-16-7
Chemical Name
Maleic acid
Synonyms
NA 2215;eic acid;Maleicaci;malenicacid;MALEIC ACID;maleinicacid;Malenic acid;MaleicAcidGr;MaleicAcidBp;TOXILIC ACID
CBNumber
CB2852803
Molecular Formula
C4H4O4
Formula Weight
116.07
MOL File
110-16-7.mol
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Maleic acid Property

Melting point:
130-135 °C (lit.)
Boiling point:
275°C
Density 
1.59 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
refractive index 
1.5260 (estimate)
Flash point:
127 °C
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
478.8g/l
pka
1.83(at 25℃)
form 
Powder/Solid
color 
White
Specific Gravity
1.59
PH
1.3 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
790 g/L (25 ºC)
Merck 
14,5703
BRN 
605762
Stability:
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, bases.
InChIKey
VZCYOOQTPOCHFL-OWOJBTEDSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
110-16-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
2-Butenedioic acid (Z)-(110-16-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
Maleic acid (110-16-7)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
22-36/37/38-43
Safety Statements 
26-28-37-28A-46-24
RIDADR 
3261
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
OM9625000
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
8
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
29173990
Hazardous Substances Data
110-16-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Danger
Hazard statements

H302Harmful if swallowed

H315Causes skin irritation

H317May cause an allergic skin reaction

H318Causes serious eye damage

H319Causes serious eye irritation

H335May cause respiratory irritation

Precautionary statements

P261Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P304+P340IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P305+P351+P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

P405Store locked up.

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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.00380
Product name
Maleic acid
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
25 g
Price
$37.4
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.45002
Product name
Maleic acid
Purity
Msynth?plus
Packaging
100 g
Price
$41.81
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.00380
Product name
Maleic acid
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
1 kg
Price
$43.38
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.00380
Product name
Maleic acid
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
500 g
Price
$45.6
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.00380
Product name
Maleic acid
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
100 g
Price
$33.6
Updated
2021/12/16
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Maleic acid Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Description

Maleic acid is an organic compound that is a dicarboxylic acid, a molecule with two carboxyl groups. Its chemical formula is HO2CCHCHCO2H. Maleic acid is the cis-isomer of butenedioic acid, where as fumaric acid is the trans-isomer. It is mainly used as a precursor to fumaric acid, and relative to its parent maleic anhydride, maleic acid has few applications.

Chemical Properties

Maleic acid, HOOCCH:CHCOOH, also known as maleinic acid and toxilic acid,is a colorless crystalline dibasic acid. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Maleic acid is used in manufacturing synthetic resins, in textile processing, and in preserving oils and fats.

Chemical Properties

Maleic acid is a white crystalline solid. Faint, acid like odor.

Chemical Properties

Maleic acid occurs as a white crystalline (monoclinic) powder and possesses a faint acidulous odor and an astringent taste.
Fumaric acid and maleic acid are the simplest unsaturated carboxylic diacids. These acids experience two-step dissociation in aqueous solutions.They have the same structural formula but different spatial configurations. Fumaric acid is the trans and maleic acid the cis isomer. The physical properties of maleic acid and fumaric acid are very different. The cis isomer is less stable. Maleic acid is used in the preparation of fumaric acid by catalytic isomerization.

Physical properties

Maleic acid is a less stable molecule than fumaric acid. The difference in heat of combustion is 22.7 kJ·mol?1. The heat of combustion is -1355 kJ / mole. Maleic acid is more soluble in water than fumaric acid. The melting point of maleic acid (135 °C) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 °C). Both properties of maleic acid can be explained on account of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that takes place in maleic acid at the expense of intermolecular interactions, and that are not possible in fumaric acid for geometric reasons.

Uses

Maleic acid is an industrial raw material for the production of glyoxylic acid by ozonolysis.
Maleic acid may be used to form acid addition salts with drugs to make them more stable, such as indacaterol maleate.

Uses

Maleic acid is used as a precursor to fumaric acid, dimethyl maleate and glyoxalic acid. It is an electrophile and acts as dienophine in Diels-Alder reactions. It reacts with drugs to form more stable addition salts like indacaterol maleate, carfenazine, chlorpheniramine, pyrilamine, methylergonovine and thiethylperazine. Its maleate ion is useful in biochemistry as an inhibitor of transaminase reactions.

Uses

manufacture of artificial resins; to retard rancidity of fats and oils in 1:10,000 (these are said to keep 3 times longer than those without the acid); dyeing and finishing wool, cotton, and silk; preparing the maleate salts of antihistamines and similar drugs.

Definition

ChEBI: A butenedioic acid in which the double bond has cis- (Z)-configuration.

Production Methods

Maleic anhydride is the main source of maleic acid produced by hydration. Maleic anhydride is prepared commercially by the oxidation of benzene or by the reaction of butane with oxygen in the presence of a vanadium catalyst.

Reactions

Although not practised commercially, maleic acid can be converted into maleic anhydride by dehydration, to malic acid by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation (ethanol / palladium on carbon). It reacts with thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride to give the maleic acid chloride (it is not possible to isolate the mono acid chloride). Maleic acid, being electrophilic, participates as a dienophile in many Diels - Alder reactions.

Synthesis Reference(s)

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 86, p. 4603, 1964 DOI: 10.1021/ja01075a017
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 60, p. 6676, 1995 DOI: 10.1021/jo00126a013
Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 2, p. 302, 1943

General Description

Maleic acid is a colorless crystalline solid having a faint odor. Maleic acid is combustible though Maleic acid may take some effort to ignite. Maleic acid is soluble in water. Maleic acid is used to make other chemicals and for dyeing and finishing naturally occurring fibers.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Maleic acid is a colorless to white crystalline solid. Moderately toxic. When heated to decomposition Maleic acid emits irritating fumes and acrid smoke [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 790].

Hazard

Toxic by ingestion.

Health Hazard

Inhalation causes irritation of nose and throat. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.

Fire Hazard

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating smoke containing maleic anhydride may form in fire.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Maleic acid is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a pH modifier and a buffering agent.It is also used to prevent rancidity of oils and fats; a ratio of 1 : 10 000 is usually sufficient to retard rancidity. Maleic acid is commonly used as a pharmaceutical intermediate to form the maleate salts of several categories of therapeutic agents, such as salts of antihistamines and other drug substances.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. Passes through intact skin. A skin and severe eye irritant and a corrosive. Believed to be more toxic than its isomer, fumeric acid. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety

Maleic acid is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material when used at low levels as an excipient. Maleic acid is used in oral, topical, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations in addition to food products.
LD50 (mouse, oral): 2.40g/kg(7)
LD50 (rabbit, skin): 1.56g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 0.708g/kg

Potential Exposure

Maleic acid is used to make artificial resins, antihistamines, and to preserve (retard rancidity) of fats and oils

Carcinogenicity

In chronic feeding studies, 12 Osborne–Mendel rats per group were fed 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% maleic acid in their diets for 2 years. Concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% maleic acid retarded the growth rate of rats, and all concentrations of maleic acid increased mortality rate; no tumorigenesis was reported. Toxicological differences from controls were not marked, and the pathology was nonspecific.

storage

Maleic acid converts into the much higher-melting fumaric acid (mp: 287°C) when heated to a temperature slightly above its melting point.
Maleic acid is combustible when exposed to heat or flame. The bulk material should be stored in airtight glass containers and protected from light. It is recommended not to store it above 25°C.

Shipping

UN2215 Maleic acid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

Crystallise the acid from acetone/pet ether (b 60-80o) or hot water. Dry it at 100o. [Beilstein 2 H 748, 2 I 303, 2 II 641, 2 III 1911, 2 IV 2199.]

Incompatibilities

Dust may form explosive mixture with air, Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, amines, reducing agents; alkali metals

Incompatibilities

Maleic acid can react with oxidizing materials. Aqueous solutions are corrosive to carbon steels.

Waste Disposal

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Liquid: incinerate after mixing with a flammable solvent. Use afterburner for complete combustion. Solid: dissolve in a flammable solvent or package in paper and burn. See above

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM and IV injections; oral tablets and capsules; topical applications). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK.

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Maleic acid Suppliers

Hubei Qifei Pharmaceutical Chemical Co., Ltd
Tel
027-59322506- ;027-59322506-
Fax
027-59322506
Email
1438082200@qq.com;1438480055@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
9586
Advantage
58
Shanghai guanghua technology co., LTD
Tel
021-51098368-807
Fax
021-52215553
Email
chemol@126.com
Country
China
ProdList
43
Advantage
58
Shanghai kadel chemical technology co., LTD
Tel
021-4007787-550
Email
2850202386@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
10708
Advantage
58
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
Fax
86-10-82849933
Email
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
96815
Advantage
76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
+86-021-61259100
Fax
86-21-61259102
Email
int02@meryer.com
Country
China
ProdList
40264
Advantage
62
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd.
Tel
821-50328103-801
Fax
86-21-50328109
Email
3bsc@sina.com
Country
China
ProdList
15877
Advantage
69
future industrial shanghai co., ltd
Tel
400-0066-400;021-60496031
Fax
021-55660885
Email
sales@jonln.com;sales@jonln.com
Country
China
ProdList
1999
Advantage
65
Alfa Aesar
Tel
400-610-6006; 021-67582000
Fax
021-67582001/03/05
Email
saleschina@alfa-asia.com
Country
China
ProdList
30159
Advantage
84
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd.
Tel
021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
Fax
021-67121385
Email
Sales-CN@TCIchemicals.com
Country
China
ProdList
24555
Advantage
81
Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
13651141086; 86(10)60275028、60275820
Fax
86 (10) 60270825
Email
dtftchem@sina.com
Country
China
ProdList
3392
Advantage
62
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View Lastest Price from Maleic acid manufacturers

Wuhan wingroup Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
Product
Maleic acid 110-16-7
Price
US $10.00/KG
Min. Order
500g
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
2000MT/Month
Release date
2021-07-07
WUHAN FORTUNA CHEMICAL CO., LTD
Product
Maleic acid 110-16-7
Price
US $0.00/Kg/Bag
Min. Order
25KG
Purity
99%-101%
Supply Ability
20 tons
Release date
2021-05-28
Wuhan Monad Medicine Tech Co.,LTD
Product
Maleic acid 110-16-7
Price
US $10.00/Kg/Bag
Min. Order
1Kg/Bag
Purity
99%min
Supply Ability
5000
Release date
2021-04-16

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