Food Additive
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Curcumin

Food Additive
Product Name
Curcumin
CAS No.
458-37-7
Chemical Name
Curcumin
Synonyms
halad;haidr;halud;haldar;yo-kin;curcuma;souchet;curouma;gelbwurz;Curcuimn
CBNumber
CB4183426
Molecular Formula
C21H20O6
Formula Weight
368.38
MOL File
458-37-7.mol
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Curcumin Property

Melting point:
183 °C
Boiling point:
418.73°C (rough estimate)
Density 
0.93
vapor density 
13 (vs air)
refractive index 
1.4155-1.4175
Flash point:
208.9±23.6 °C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
ethanol: 10 mg/mL
pka
8.09(at 25℃)
form 
powder
Colour Index 
75300
color 
orange
Odor
Odorless
PH Range
Yellow (7.8) to red-brown (9.2)
Water Solubility 
Slightly soluble (hot)
λmax
430nm
Merck 
14,2673
Concentration
1 mCi/ml
BRN 
2306965
Solvent
Ethanol
Specific Activity
5-15 Ci/mmol
Stability:
Stable, but may be light sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Major Application
Cosmetics, drug-eluting stents, inhibition of formation of skin-wrinkles, treating alzheimer’s disease, skin diseases, coronary restenosis, diabetes, obesity, leukemia, neurofibromas, cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antiprostate cancer
InChIKey
VFLDPWHFBUODDF-FCXRPNKRSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
458-37-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
Curcumin (458-37-7)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
Xi
Risk Statements 
36/37/38
Safety Statements 
26
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
MI5230000
Hazard Note 
Irritant
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29145000
Hazardous Substances Data
458-37-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 Oral-Rat-12.200 mg/kg
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Danger
Hazard statements

H225Highly Flammable liquid and vapour

H315Causes skin irritation

H319Causes serious eye irritation

H335May cause respiratory irritation

H340May cause genetic defects

H360May damage fertility or the unborn child

H372Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

H373May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

Precautionary statements

P201Obtain special instructions before use.

P202Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P210Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.

P233Keep container tightly closed.

P240Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.

P260Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P261Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

P264Wash skin thouroughly after handling.

P270Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P271Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P303+P361+P353IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.

P304+P340IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.

P305+P351+P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

P308+P313IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.

P370+P378In case of fire: Use … for extinction.

P405Store locked up.

P403+P233Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P403+P235Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

P501Dispose of contents/container to..…

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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.20354
Product name
Curcumin
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
2 g
Price
$43.1
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.20354
Product name
Curcumin
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
10 g
Price
$58.92
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
08511
Product name
Curcumin
Purity
analytical standard
Packaging
10mg
Price
$176
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
8.20354
Product name
Curcumin
Purity
for synthesis
Packaging
50 g
Price
$209.97
Updated
2021/12/16
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
00280590
Product name
Curcumin
Purity
primary reference standard
Packaging
10mg
Price
$238
Updated
2021/12/16
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Curcumin Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Food Additive

Curcumin has been widely used in the food industry as a common natural pigment for a long time. It is mainly used for the dyeing of canned food, sausage products and soy sauce products. The amount of curcumin used is determined by normal production needs. The product form of functional food with curcumin as the main component can be general food or some non-food forms, such as capsules, pills or tablets. For general food form, some yellow pigmented foods can be considered, such as cakes, sweets, beverages, etc.
Curcumin is a food additive approved by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/WHO-1995). The newly promulgated "Standards for the Use of Food Additives" (GB2760-2011) stipulates that frozen drinks, cocoa products, chocolate and chocolate products and candies, gum-based candies, decorative candies, toppings and sweet sauces, batter, coating powder and frying powder , The maximum usage of curcumin in instant rice and noodle products, flavored syrup, compound seasoning, carbonated drinks and jelly is 0.15, 0.01, 0.7, 0.5, 0.3, 0.5, 0.5, 0.1, 0.01, 0.01 g/kg, respectively, margarine and its similar products, cooked nuts and seeds, fillings for grain products and puffed foods can be used in moderation according to production needs.

Description

Curcumin is the major yellow pigment in turmeric and curry and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. It inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production (IC50 = 6 μM) and reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Curcumin inhibits release of histamine and the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 from HMC-1 mast cells. In vivo, curcumin decreases serum levels of histamine and TNF-α, inhibits histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and decreases the number of sneezes and nasal rubbing in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced rhinitis. Curcumin (100 or 200 mg/kg) prevents ovalbumin-induced accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), a marker of oxidative stress, in mouse heart. Topical administration of curcumin (1-10 μmol) reduces the number of tumors induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA; Item No. 10008014) in mouse skin. Dietary administration of curcumin reduces the number of tongue neoplasms and preneoplastic lesions induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in rats.

Description

The main source of curcumin is the root of Zingiberaceae Curcuma aromatica, rhizome of Curcuma longa (Jiang Huang), Curcuma zedoaria, and Acorus calamus. Among them, Jiang Huang contains about 3–6% curcumin. The traditional Chinese medicine, Jiang Huang, is the root tuber of perennial herbaceous plant Curcuma longa L. of family Zingiberaceae. It was firstly recorded in the “Tang materia medica” (Xin Xiu Ben Cao). It is pungent, bitter, and warm and enters the liver and spleen meridians. It activates the blood, moves qi, dredges meridians, and alleviates pain. In India and other Asian countries, Jiang Huang has more than 6000?years of application history. In Japan, Jiang Huang has a long history of health care, and the people of Okinawa Island regarded Jiang Huang as a holy tribute to the emperor. Jiang Huang mainly comes from Taiwan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Tibet of China and other regions in East Asia and Southeast Asia. It grows in warm and humid climate and sunny environment with abundant rainfall and fears cold frost, drought, and flood. At present, Chinese Pharmacopoeia only included Jiang Huang and Yu Jin which contains curcumin, while curcumin is not included.

Chemical Properties

Several species of Curcuma exist: C. xanthorrhyza, C. domestica, C. zedoafia, C. caesia and C. amada. Although all these are aromatic plants, C. longa is the one used as a flavor ingredient. The plant is originally from southern Asia and is widespread throughout India, Malaysia, Ceylon and Japan. It is a perennial herb whose rhizome yields (like that of ginger, which it also resembles) climbing stalks with leaves only or with leaves and flowers. Reproduction occurs through the splitting of the rhizome, which is the only part used (dried rhizome as is or after previously boiling in water). Turmeric has a spicy, fresh odor reminiscent of sweet orange and ginger and a slightly pungent, bitter flavor.

Chemical Properties

orange crystalline powder

Physical properties

Appearance: orange-brown crystalline powder and tastes a little bitter. It will turn into reddish brown in alkaline solution and yellow in neutral and acidic solution. It has strong stability against the reducing agent. It has excellent pigmentation which is not easy to fade. It is sensitive to light, heat, and iron ion. When PH is greater than 8, curcumin turns from yellow to red, which can be used as a pH indicator.
Solubility: insoluble in water or diethyl ether and soluble in ethanol, propylene glycol, acetic acid, and alkali solution.
Melting point: about 183 °C.

History

Curcumin is one such agent that was described about two centuries ago as the yellow coloring matter from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. Besides curcumin, more than 300 different components, including phenolics and terpenoids, have been identified in turmeric, but curcumin is one of the most important active components . Pure curcumin was prepared in 1842 by Vogel Jr. After 1870, the possible structure of curcumin was reported by several chemists in the subsequent decades. The chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane or 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione-1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-(1E, 6E) was reported by Milobedzka et?al. (1910). Lampe and Milobedzka (1913) reported the synthesis of curcumin. However, Srinivasan (1953) for the first time used chromatography to separate and quantify the components of curcumin .
Jiang Huang has been used for more than 6000 years; it is also well known for its medicinal value and active ingredients. But it was not until the middle of the twentieth century that scientists conducted a systematic study on their pharmacological effects. In 1949, Schraufstatter and Bernt found that curcumin has a variety of antibacterial effects against Streptococcus, Salmonella, Mucor, Mycobacterium and so on . In the 1970s, the study also found that it has lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects. In 1980s, it was found to have antitumor effects. In the last 30 years, there are many reports about the clinical and pharmacological effects of curcumin.
At present, more than 65 human clinical trials have been completed, and more than 35 clinical trials are in progress. In addition, the study of curcumin derivatives has also become a hot topic in recent years.

Uses

For preparing curcuma paper, pH range 8-9. In the detection of boron.

Uses

A natural phenolic compound. Potent anti-tumor agent having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Induces apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibits phorbol ester-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Reported to inhibit production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Potent inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase and IκB kinase. Inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase. Easily penetrates into the cytoplasm of cells, accumulating in membranous structures such as plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope.

Uses

antiedemic, antiinflammatory, bile stimulant; antibacterial, antifungal, lipo/cyclooxygenase inhibitor

Uses

Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in at least two t

Definition

ChEBI: A beta-diketone that is methane in which two of the hydrogens are substituted by feruloyl groups. A natural dyestuff found in the root of Curcuma longa.

General Description

Orange-yellow needles.

Air & Water Reactions

Slightly soluble in hot water .

Reactivity Profile

Curcumin is sensitive to light and changes in pH. Curcumin may react with oxidizing materials.

Biological Activity

Antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Downregulates expression of reactive-oxygen-generating enzymes (cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, iNOS), TNF α , IL-1, IL-6, PKC, EGFR, NF- κ B, I κ B kinase and more. Upregulates expression of PPAR γ , p53, Nrf2. Also displays antimicrobial, antidiabetic neuro- and cardioprotective properties in vivo .

Biochem/physiol Actions

A natural phenolic compound. Potent anti-tumor agent having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Curcumin has been cited as a potential chemopreventive agent, in addition to its chemotherapeutic activity. Induces apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibits phorbol ester-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Reported to inhibit production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Potent inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase and IκB kinase. Inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase. Easily penetrates into the cytoplasm of cells, accumulating in membranous structures such as plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope.

Mechanism of action

Curcumin, the active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been regarded as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent . Particularly, it can scavenge reactive oxygen species, such  as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radicals, and nitrogen dioxide radicals. Additionally, it serves  as an anti-inflammatory by down-regulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1  and TNF-α) and inhibiting the activation of specific transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB and AP-1). Curcumin also demonstrates antiproliferative properties. Specifically, it inhibits UV radiation-induced  skin cancer in SKH-1 hairless mice and reduces UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1/3 expression in human dermal fibroblasts via MAPK-p38/JNK pathway suppression.

Pharmacology

1. Anti-fibrosis effects: curcumin has the effect of anti-fibrosis in the lung, liver, kidney, and so on. It could inhibit the release of various inflammatory factors and reduce the expression of collagen, laminin, hyaluronic acid, and other extracellular matrix content. It could also reduce the transforming growth factors such as TGF-尾 to inhibit cell proliferation .
2. Antitumor effects: the antitumor effect of curcumin is currently the most studied pharmacological effects and attracts a lot of attention worldwide. Curcumin has been proved to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells through regulating a variety of transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1, etc.), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), growth factor receptor kinase (PDGFR, VEGFR, etc.), and cyclooxygenase. It plays an important role in the cell cycle and further to inhibit proliferation. Curcumin can also inhibit the migration of tumor cells by activating caspase and inducing tumor cell apoptosis .
3. Anti-inflammatory effects: curcumin has a strong inhibitory effect on different kinds of inflammation. The mechanism might relate to the reduction of the expression of prostaglandins and leukotriene to decrease the release of various inflammatory factors. The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin is close to that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids, but it has higher safety and lower side effects .
4. Antimicrobial effects: curcumin has a strong inhibitory effect on bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites . Researchers believe that curcumin may play a role in inhibiting microbial survival and reproduction by destroying microbial cell membranes, inducing their genetic changes, and so on.
5. Hypolipidemic effect: many researchers believe that curcumin will become a hypolipidemic drug with a good prospect. It can lower the levels of total blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, increase apolipoprotein A level, promote lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, and increase LDL excretion to reduce LDL body content .
6. Drug metabolism: rats were treated with a single dose of refined curcumin orally, 60–65% of which was absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Within 5 days, 40% of curcumin were excreted from the feces. The plasma concentration reached the peak after 3 days. The transformation of curcumin happened in the process of hepato-enteral circulation .

Anticancer Research

It is a yellow-colored polyphenolic compound found in turmeric and used as a foodadditive. It has antitumor effects involved in mutagenesis, cell cycle regulation,apoptosis, oncogene expression, and metastasis. Thus it regulates the initiation,promotion, and progression of disease (Hosseini and Ghorbani 2015). Its mechanismof action is diversified and convoluted. 10 μM curcumin suppresses binding of theTPA response element (TRE) by c-Jun/activator protein-1 in NIH 3 T3 cells ofmouse fibroblasts. Both protein kinase C and ornithine decarboxylase are alsoinhibited by curcumin. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase leads tosuppression of arachidonic acid cascade (Murakami et al. 1996). Curcumin is animpressive blocker of the activation of NF-κB by inhibiting IκB kinase (IKK).Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, suppresses the cell growth, and inducesapoptosis in prostate, breast, acute myelogenous leukemia, and multiple myelomacancer cells. It may act against psoriasis by inhibition of phosphorylase kinaseenzyme (Aggarwal and Shishodia 2004). Curcumin downregulates the TNF-inducedNF-κB-regulated gene products involved in cellular proliferation (cyclin D1, COX-2,c-myc), antiapoptosis (IAP2, IAP1, Bcl-2, XIAP, Bcl-xL, TRAF1, Bf1–1/A1,Cflip), and metastasis (MMP-9, VEGF, ICAM-1). It also suppresses the activity ofIκBα kinase, κBα degradation, IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation,p65 phosphorylation, and p65 acetylation (Aggarwal et al. 2008). It upregulates the expression of p53, p16, p21, EGR1 (early growth response protein1), ERK(extracellular signal-regulated kinase), JNK(c-Jun-N-terminal kinase), ElK1, Bax,and caspase 3, caspase8, and caspase9 proteins and downregulates Bcl2, mTOR,p65, Bcl-xL, AKT, EGFR, cdc2, retinoblastoma protein (Prb), c-myc, and cyclin D1proteins (Singh et al. 2016b). It can dissociate raptor from mTOR and inhibit mTORcomplex1. The inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling results from thedephosphorylation dependent on the calyculin A-sensitive protein phosphatase.Further, it modulating effect on AP-1 in HT-29 human colon cancer cells was foundto be a dose-dependent increase of AP-1 luciferase activity (Ravindran et al. 2009).
Curcumin is a dynamic element of turmeric, an outstanding Indian zest that isobtained from the plant Curcuma longa dried roots. Curcumin hindered PDGFR-incitedproliferation of human hepatic myofibroblasts (Zheng and Chen 2006). Theactivated mechanism by curcumin in PDGF signaling is as follows: Curcumindecreases the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGFR-β and EGF-R; repressesthe action of ERK, JNK, and PI3/AKT; reduces cell growth; and induces apoptosisdose-dependently (Kunnumakkara et al. 2008). Moreover, curcumin interferes withPDGF signaling via relieving its inhibitory effect on PPARγ gene expression toreduce the cell growth; it also promotes the expression of PPARγ genes (Zhou et al.2007).
This compound is a yellow pigment produced by plants, mostly by those in theginger family (Zingiberaceae). Curcumin has enormous potential in terms of cancerprevention and treatment, and numerous studies and reviews described it as a potentantioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent (Aggarwal et al. 2003; Agrawal and Mishra2010). It inhibits biochemical activity, restraining overexpression of some signallingpathways and regulating the expression of tumour suppression genes (Cre?uet al. 2012). Temu kunci, or galangal (Boesenbergia pandurata), is a rhizome generallyused in cooking that can also be prepared to treat diarrhoea and mouth ulcers.It has been proven non-toxic to human skin fibroblast cells and offers protectiveeffects against colon cancer (Kirana et al. 2007). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) andginger (Zingiber officinale) are two plants that contain an abundance of curcuminand which have been investigated for their therapeutic properties. One piece ofresearch, for example, showed that ethanolic extract of turmeric showed anti-melanomaactivity against malignant melanomas (Danciu et al. 2015).

Clinical Use

1. Cholagogic effect could promote bile formation and secretion.
2. Hypolipidemic effect could reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood and prevent atherosclerosis.
3. Antibacterial and antiviral effect could inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and HIV.
4. Liver protection.
5. Anticancer and antitumor effect.
6. Help with the prevention of dementia.
7. Anti-inflammation and treatment of acne and dermatitis.
8. There are no reports of adverse effect of curcumin till now.

Purification Methods

Crystallise curcumin from EtOH or acetic acid. [Beilstein 8 IV 3697.]

References

1) Zhang?et al.?(2015),?Anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on mast cell-mediated allergic responses in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis mouse; Cell Immunol.?298?88 2) Li?et al.?(2018),?Anticancer effects of curcumin on nude mice bearing lung cancer A549 cell subsets SP and NSP cells; Oncol. Lett.?16?6756

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View Lastest Price from Curcumin manufacturers

Hebei Lingding Biological Technology Co., Ltd
Product
curcumin 458-37-7
Price
US $100.00/KG
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
9000kg/per week
Release date
2021-05-14
Hebei Lingding Biological Technology Co., Ltd
Product
turmeric powder curcumin 458-37-7
Price
US $80.00/KG
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
9000kg/per week
Release date
2021-04-27
Guangzhou Biocar Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.
Product
Curcumin 458-37-7
Price
US $1.00/g
Min. Order
10g
Purity
95% HPLC
Supply Ability
1000kg
Release date
2022-01-14

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