Physical properties Uses Reactions Production Methods
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Water

Physical properties Uses Reactions Production Methods
Product Name
Water
CAS No.
7732-18-5
Chemical Name
Water
Synonyms
Eis;LYE;PP18;R718;Aqua;steam;WATER;Wasser;SC-3000;Oxidane
CBNumber
CB5854297
Molecular Formula
H2O
Formula Weight
18.01
MOL File
7732-18-5.mol
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Water Property

Melting point:
318 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
100 °C(lit.)
Density 
0.998 g/cm3 (20℃)
vapor density 
<1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
3 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.34(lit.)
Flash point:
100°C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form 
powder
pka
pKa 13.996±0.001(H2O t = 25.00 I = 0.000) (Uncertain)
color 
White to off-white
Specific Gravity
1.000 (20/20℃)
Relative polarity
9
PH
14 (H2O, 20°C)
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water. Insoluble in polar liquids.
λmax
λ: 205 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 210 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 250-400 nm Amax: 0.005
Merck 
14,10039
BRN 
2050024
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with reactive metals.
CAS DataBase Reference
7732-18-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
C
Risk Statements 
36/38
Safety Statements 
26
RIDADR 
UN 1824 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
WB4900000
34
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
28530010
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Signal word
Warning
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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
00612
Product name
Water
Purity
for ion chromatography
Packaging
2.5l
Price
$39.2
Updated
2018/11/13
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
00612
Product name
Water
Purity
for ion chromatography
Packaging
5l
Price
$64.4
Updated
2018/11/13
Alfa Aesar
Product number
019391
Product name
Water, ultrapure
Purity
Spectrophotometric Grade
Packaging
4L
Price
$69.9
Updated
2018/11/20
Alfa Aesar
Product number
019391
Product name
Water, ultrapure
Purity
Spectrophotometric Grade
Packaging
1L
Price
$34.8
Updated
2018/11/20
Strem Chemicals
Product number
98-8000
Product name
Water, 99.999% (PURATREM), 98-0295, contained in 50 ml Swagelok cylinder (96-1070) for CVD/ALD
Packaging
25g
Price
$605
Updated
2018/11/19
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Water Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Physical properties

Colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid; refractive index 1.3330; exists in three allotropic forms: solid ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam (or vapor); density of water increases with temperature, becomes maximum 1.0000 g/mL at 3.98°C and then decreases with rise in temperatures; density at 25°C 0.997 g/cm3; density of water at 100°C 0.9584 g/mL; density of steam 0.000596 g/mL at 100°C. Water freezes to ice at 0°C; expands by about 10% on freezing; boils at 100°C; vapor pressure at 0°, 20°, 50°, and 100°C are 4.6, 17.5, 92.5, and 760 torr, respectively; dielectric constant 80.2 at 20°C and 76.6 at 30°C; dipole moment in benzene at 25°C 1.76; critical temperature 373.99°C; critical pressure 217.8 atm; critical density 0.322 g/cm3; viscosity 0.01002 poise at 20°C; surface tension 73 dynes/cm at 20°C; dissolves ionic substances; miscible with mineral acids, alkalies; low molecular weight alcohols, aldehydes and ketones; forms an azeotrope with several solvents; immiscible with nonpolar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, hexane, chloroform, benzene, toluene, and carbon disulfide.

Uses

Water is among the most important compounds on earth. It is the main constituent of the hydrosphere, which along with the mantle, crust, and the atmosphere are the four components of our planet. It is present everywhere on earth and is essential for sustenance of life. Water also determines climate, weather pattern, and energy balance on earth. It also is one of the most abundant compounds. The mass of all water on earth is 1.4x1021 kg and the total volume is about 1.4x109 km3, which includes 97.20% of salt water of oceans, 2.15% of fresh water in polar ice caps and glaciers, 0.009% in freshwater lakes, 0.008% in saline lakes, 0.62% as ground waters, 0.005% in soil moisture; 0.0001% in stream channels and 0.001% as vapors and moisture in the atmosphere. Among the major industrial applications of water are generation of hydroelectric power, steam generation, industrial solvent, diluent, moderator in nuclear reactions, industrial coolant, washing and cleaning, textile processing, preparation of food and beverages, filtration processes, and generation of hydrogen by electrolysis. Also, water provides the aqueous phase to carry out innumerable chemical reactions in the production of myriads of chemical substances including mineral acids, alkalies and their salts.

Reactions

Water undergoes autoionization to a small extent; the ionization constant at 25°C is 1.008x10–14: 2H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + OH¯ Water reacts both as an acid and a base. With bases it reacts as an acid: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ NH4+(aq) + OH¯; and with acids it reacts as a base: HCl (aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + Cl¯(aq) Water reacts with many metal oxides and nonmetal oxides forming bases and acids, respectively: MgO(s) + H2O(l) → Mg(OH)2(s) CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2 (s) N2O5(s) + H2O(l) → 2HNO3(l) P4O10(s) + 6H2O (l) → 4H3PO4(s) Water also behaves both as an oxidizing and reducing agent. With alkali and alkaline earth metals, which are strong reducing agents, water acts as an oxidizing agent. Reactions occur violently or vigorously at ambient temperatures with all alkali metals and calcium, strontium, and barium forming their hydroxides with liberation of hydrogen: 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(s) + H2(g) With less active metals, reactions occur at high temperatures. In such reactions oxides are formed instead of hydroxides, liberating hydrogen: Mg(s) + H2O(l) → MgO(s) + H2(g) Ni(s) + H2O (l) → NiO(s) + H2(g) 3Fe(s) + 4H2O (l) → Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g) Water reacts with nonmetals and metalloid elements at very high temperatures forming oxides: C(s) + H2O(g)  →CO(g) + H2(g)  Ge(s) + 2H2O(l)  →GeO2(s) + 2H2 (g)   Water behaves as a reducing agent in reactions with oxidizing agents: 2F2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → 4HF (aq) + O2 (g) Water reacts with carbon monoxide at high temperatures (200 to 400°) in the presence of a catalyst to yield carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The reaction also is known as water-gas shift reaction: CO(g) + H2O(l) ↔ CO2 (g) + H2 (g) Water reacts with metal hydrides liberating hydrogen. With the hydrides of sodium and potassium the reaction progresses with explosive violence: NaH + H2O → NaOH + H2 With alkali metal amides violent reactions occur, forming alkali hydroxides and ammonia: NaNH2 + H2O → NaOH + NH3 Violent reactions occur with lithium aluminum hydride and similar compounds: LiAlH4 + 4H2O → LiOH + Al(OH)3 + 4H2 Sodium ethoxide decomposes in water forming sodium hydroxide and ethanol: NaOC2H5 + H2O → NaOH + C2H5OH Sulfuryl chloride, SO2Cl2, reacts with ice-cold water to form a hydrate, SO2Cl2•15H2O. However, at ambient temperature water decomposes sulfuryl chloride slowly forming sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid: SO2Cl2 + 2H2O → H2SO4 + 2HCl Water reacts with calcium carbide to form acetylene: CaC2 + H2O → C2H2 + CaO Water forms hydrates with a large number of metal salts. Such hydrates are formed from absorption of moisture from air by anhydrous salts. Examples are Na2SO4•7H2O, CuSO4•5H2O, and BaCl2•2H2O. In many salt hydrates, water molecules coordinate to the metal ions, e.g., [Ni(H2O)6](NO3)2. Organic esters are hydrolyzed to form corresponding organic acids and alcohol. The reaction is catalyzed by acids: RCOOR’ + H2O → RCOOH + R’OH

Production Methods

Water is produced by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen at high temperatures in the presence of a catalyst. Also, all combustion reactions of hydrocarbons (C, H compounds) or oxygenated hydrocarbons (C, H, O) yield water and carbon dioxide:
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
2CH3OH + 2O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O
All acid-base neutralization reactions form water:
HCl + NaOH → NaCl + 4H2O
Organic condensation reactions eliminate a water molecule:
CH3COOH + C2H5OH → CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
Many hydroxides dehydrate at high temperatures forming oxides and water:
Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O
Water can be purified by distillation, ion exchange, filtration, carbon adsorption, and chlorination.

Chemical Properties

colourless liquid

Uses

For use in the preparation of cell culture media, and cell suspension and washing solutions.

Uses

For use in embryo manipulation.

Uses

water is listed also as catalyzed, deionized, demineralized, distilled, pure spring, and purified water. Water is an important skin component and is essential for its proper functioning. It is the most common ingredient used in cosmetic formulations and, therefore, is generally listed first on product labels. Water is usually processed to eliminate hardness and minerals, and to avoid product contamination.

Uses

Water is a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid formed by the combi- nation of two hydrogen and one oxygen atoms. it allows substances to dissolve and functions as a solvent, dispersing medium, hydrate, and promoter of chemical changes. it is a major constituent in meats, fruits, and vegetables. distilled water is obtained by conden- sation of water vapor.

Definition

ChEBI: An oxygen hydride consisting of an oxygen atom that is covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

Purification Methods

Conductivity water (specific conductance ca 10-7 mho) can be obtained by distilling water in a steam-heated tin-lined still, then, after adding 0.25% of solid NaOH and 0.05% of KMnO4, distilling once more from an electrically heated Barnstead-type still, taking the middle fraction into a Jena glass bottle. During these operations suitable traps must be used to protect against entry of CO2 and NH3. Water, only a little less satisfactory for conductivity measurements (but containing traces of organic material) can be obtained by passing ordinary distilled water through a mixed bed ion-exchange column containing, for example, Amberlite resins IR 120 (cation exchange) and IRA 400 (anion exchange), or Amberlite MB-1. This treatment is also a convenient one for removing traces of heavy metals. (The metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg can be tested for by adding pure concentrated ammonia to 10mL of sample and shaking vigorously with 1.2mL of 0.001% dithizone in CCl4. Less than 0.1Yg of metal ion will impart a faint colour to the CCl4 layer.) For almost all laboratory purposes, simple distillation yields water of adequate purity, and most of the volatile contaminants such as ammonia and CO2 are removed if the first fraction of distillate is discarded. Most laboratories have glass stills that “doubly” or “trebly” distil water. [See “water” in Chapter 1.]

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Water Suppliers

Shanghai Macklin Biochemical Co.,Ltd.
Tel
15221275939
Fax
021-50706099
Email
shenlinxing@macklin.cn
Country
China
ProdList
15719
Advantage
55
KetoTech, Inc.
Tel
+1.2178661072
Fax
+1.2178661072
Email
info@ketotechnology.com
Country
China
ProdList
3
Advantage
55
Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co,Ltd.
Tel
86-21-63210123
Fax
86-21-63290778 86-21-63218885
Email
sj_scrc@sinopharm.com
Country
China
ProdList
9847
Advantage
79
VWR(Shanghai) Co., Ltd
Tel
400-821-8006
Fax
+86-21-58558801
Email
Info_China@vwr.com
Country
China
ProdList
3046
Advantage
75
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
Fax
86-10-82849933
Email
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
96815
Advantage
76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
+86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
Fax
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing)
Email
sh@meryer.com
Country
China
ProdList
40269
Advantage
62
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd.
Tel
86-21-50328103 * 801、802、803、804 Mobile:18930552037
Fax
86-21-50328109
Email
3bsc@sina.com
Country
China
ProdList
15881
Advantage
69
Alfa Aesar
Tel
400-610-6006; 021-67582000
Fax
021-67582001/03/05
Email
saleschina@alfa-asia.com
Country
China
ProdList
30163
Advantage
84
Energy Chemical
Tel
021-58432009 / 400-005-6266
Fax
021-58436166-800
Email
info@energy-chemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
44025
Advantage
61
Shanghai Hanhong Scientific Co.,Ltd.
Tel
021-54306202,021-54308259
Fax
+86-21-64545202
Email
info@hanhonggroup.com
Country
China
ProdList
43260
Advantage
64

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