Basic information Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Toxicity Safety Supplier Related
ChemicalBook >  Product Catalog >  Inorganic chemistry >  Inorganic salts >  Metal halide and Halogen salt >  Non-metal halides, sulfides or sulfonated >  Phosphorus pentachloride

Phosphorus pentachloride

Basic information Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Toxicity Safety Supplier Related

Phosphorus pentachloride Basic information

Product Name:
Phosphorus pentachloride
Synonyms:
  • Fosforpentachloride
  • fosforpentachloride[dutch]
  • PCl5
  • pentachloro-phosphoran
  • pentachlorophosphorane
  • pentachloro-phosphorane
  • pentachlorophosphorus
  • PhosphorusVchloridewhitextl
CAS:
10026-13-8
MF:
Cl5P
MW:
208.24
EINECS:
233-060-3
Product Categories:
  • metal halide
  • Inorganics
Mol File:
10026-13-8.mol
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Phosphorus pentachloride Chemical Properties

Melting point:
179-181°C (subl.)
Boiling point:
160 °C
Density 
1.6
vapor pressure 
0.016 hPa (20 °C)
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
Soluble in carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride.
form 
macroporous
color 
Yellow
Specific Gravity
1.6
Odor
Pungent odour
PH
1 (5g/l, H2O)acidic
Water Solubility 
decomposes
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
14,7351
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA 0.85 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm) (ACGIH), ~1 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm) (OSHA). .
InChIKey
UHZYTMXLRWXGPK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
10026-13-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Phosphorus pentachloride(10026-13-8)
EPA Substance Registry System
Phosphorus pentachloride (10026-13-8)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
T+
Risk Statements 
14-22-26-34-48/20
Safety Statements 
26-36/37/39-45-7/8
RIDADR 
UN 1806 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
TB6125000
3-10
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
8
PackingGroup 
II
HS Code 
28121045
Hazardous Substances Data
10026-13-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 orally in Rabbit: 660 mg/kg

MSDS

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Phosphorus pentachloride Usage And Synthesis

Physical Properties

Yellowish-white tetragonal crystals; pungent odor; fumes in air; deliquescent; density 2.1 g/cm3; decomposes on heating; melts at 166.8°C under the pressure of its own vapor(triple point); sublimes at 160°C; critical temperature 373°C; hydrolyzes in water; soluble in carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride.

Uses

Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a chlorinating agent in many organic syntheses, such as production of alkyl and acid chlorides. It also is a catalyst in manufacturing acetylcellulose.

Preparation

Phosphorus pentachloride is prepared by reacting white phosphorus with excess dry chlorine. The white phosphorus is placed over sand in a retort from which air and moisture have been purged. The reaction is indicated by inflaming phosphorus:
P4 + 10Cl2 → 4PCl5
Also, the compound is obtained by reaction of dry chlorine with phosphorus trichloride:
PCl3 + Cl2 → PCl5

Reactions

Phosphorus pentachloride absorbs moisture from air forming phosphoryl chloride:
PCl5 + H2O → POCl3 + 2HCl
The above reaction is difficult to control and progresses to complete hydrolysis. Thus, in the presence of excess water or when treated with water, the pentachloride is hydrolyzed to phosphoric acid:
PCl5 + 4H2O → H3PO4 + 5HCl
Reaction with sulfur dioxide yields thionyl chloride and phosphoryl chloride:
PCl5 + SO2 → SOCl2 + POCl3
Reaction with liquid hydrogen sulfide forms thiophosphoryl chloride, PSCl3:
PCl5 + H2S → PSCl3 + 2HCl
Phosphorus pentachoride converts arsenic to arsenic trichloride:
3PCl5 + 2As → 3AsCl3 + 3PCl3
Reaction with oxalic acid or boric acid yields phosphoryl chloride:
PCl5 + (COOH)2 → POCl3 + CO + CO2 + 2HCl
3PCl5 + 2B(OH)3 → 3POCl3 + B2O3 + 6HCl
Reaction with phosphorus pentoxide produces phosphoryl chloride:
3PCl5 + P2O5 → 5POCl3

Toxicity

The compound is strongly irritating to skin, eyes and mucous membranes.

Description

Phthalic anhydride is a white lustrous needle-like solid, phthalic anhydride is slightly soluble in water.
Phthalic anhydride is an important chemical intermediate in the plastics industry. It has extensive industrial applications in the production of phthalic plasticisers, alkydic resins, polyesters resins, and synthetic resins. It is also used in dyes phenolphthalein, PVC stabilisers, drying agents for paints and aro. Phthalic anhydride itself is used as a monomer for synthetic resins such as glyptal, the alkyd resins, and the polyester resins. It is also used to make unsaturated polyesters that are used to manufacture fibreglassreinforced plastics, halogenated anhydrides used as fire retardants; polyester polyols for urethanes, phthalocyanine pigments; dyes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, tanning and curing agents, as solvents, as insect repellents, and various chemical intermediates. Phthalic anhydride is released to the environment from chemical plants, mainly those that manufacture the chemical or use it in the production of plastics and resins. Phthalic anhydride is used in the synthesis of primary amines, the agricultural fungicide phaltan, and thalidomide.

Chemical Properties

Yellowish crystalline powder and scales

Chemical Properties

Phosphorus pentachloride is a pale yellow, fuming solid with an odor like hydrochloric acid.

Uses

As catalyst in manufacture of acetylcellulose; for replacing hydroxyl groups by Cl, particularly for converting acids into acid chlorides.

Uses

Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a chlorinating agent to convert acids into acid chlorides, as a dehydrating agent, and as a catalyst.

Uses

Catalyst in manufacture of acetylcellulose; chlorinating and dehydrating agent

General Description

Phosphorus pentachloride is a greenish-yellow crystalline solid with an irritating odor. Phosphorus pentachloride is decomposed by water to form hydrochloric and phosphoric acid and heat. This heat may be sufficient to ignite surrounding combustible material. Phosphorus pentachloride is corrosive to metals and tissue. Long term exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations can result in adverse health effects from inhalation.

Reactivity Profile

Phosphorus pentachloride is a lightly yellow, fuming crystalline material, highly caustic, corrosive and toxic. Flammable by chemical reaction. Violent exothermic reaction with water or steam. When heated to decomposition Phosphorus pentachloride emits highly toxic fumes of chlorides and oxides of phosphorus. Explosive reaction with alkaline metals (sodium, potassium), urea. Ignites on contact with fluorine. Violent reaction with aluminum, chlorine trioxide, hydroxylamine, magnesium oxide, nitrobenzene, phosphorus(III) oxide, potassium. Carbamates form explosive products [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1360]. Reaction with the mixture of chlorine and chlorine dioxide causes explosion [Mellor, 1941, vol. 2, p. 281; 1940, vol. 8, p. 1013].

Health Hazard

Phosphorus pentachloride can cause death due to pulmonary edemaor by circulatory shock.

Health Hazard

Phosphorus pentachloride vapors are a strong irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes. Contact with skin can cause acid burns, as it reacts readily with moisture to form hydrochloric and phosphoric acids:
PCl5+4H2O→ H3PO4+5HCl
Chronic exposure to this compound can result in bronchitis.
LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 205 mg (24 ppm)/m3 (NIOSH 1986).

Fire Hazard

When heated to decomposition, Phosphorus pentachloride emits highly toxic fumes of chlorides and chlorine. Will react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic and corrosive fumes. Reacts violently with moisture, chlorine trioxide, fluorine hydroxylamine, magnesium oxides, diphosphorus trioxide, sodium and potassium. Decomposed by water to form hydrogen chloride, phosphoric acids, corrosive materials, and heat. This heat may be sufficient to ignite surrounding combustible materials. Incompatible with water, magnesium oxide, chemically active metals: sodium, potassium; alkalis; aluminum; chlorine dioxide; chlorine; diphosphorus trioxide; fluorine; hydroxylamine; magnesium oxide; 3'-methyl-2-nitrobenzanilide; nitrobenzene; sodium; urea; water.

Safety Profile

Poison by inhalation. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A severe eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant. Corrosive to body tissues. Flammable by chemical reaction. Explosive reaction with chlorine dioxide + chlorine, sodium, urea + heat. Reacts to form explosive products with carbamates, 3'-methy-2-nitrobenzanilide (product explodes on contact with air). Ignites on contact with fluorine. Reacts violently with moisture, ClO3, hydroxyl- amine, magnesium oxide, nitrobenzene, phosphorus(Ⅲ) oxide, K. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with aluminum, chlorine dioxide, chlorine,diphosphorus trioxide, fluorine, hydroxylamine, magnesium oxide, 3'-methyl- 2-nitrobenzanilide, nitrobenzene, sodium, urea, water. Will react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic and corrosive fumes. Used as a catalyst, chlorinating and dehydrating agent. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cland POx.

Potential Exposure

Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a as a chlorinating and dehydrating agent and as a catalyst. It is used in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals;chlorinated compounds; gasoline additives, plasticizers and surfactants; and in pharmaceutical manufacture

Shipping

UN1806 Phosphorus pentachloride, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

[All operations should be carried out in an efficient fume cupboard.] Sublime it at 160-170o in an atmosphere of chlorine. Excess chlorine is then displaced by dry N2 gas. All subsequent manipulations should be performed in a dry-box [Downs & Johnson J Am Chem Soc 77 2098 1955]. It fumes in moist air and attacks the eyes and the mucous membranes of the nose. It should not be breathed in and has very HARMFUL VAPOURS (wash burning eyes with aqueous NaHCO3).

Incompatibilities

Phosphorus pentachloride is a powerful oxidizer. Reacts with water (violent), magnesium oxide, chemically active metals, such as sodium and potassium, alkalis, amines, carbamates, aluminum powder, combustibles, fluorine, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus trioxide, and many other substances. Hydrolyzes in water (even in humid air) to form hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid. Corrosive to many metals, forming flammable and explosive hydrogen gas. Attacks plastic and rubber.

Waste Disposal

Decompose with water, forming phosphoric and hydrochloric acids. Neutralize acids and dilute if necessary for discharge into the sewer system.

Phosphorus pentachlorideSupplier

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