description Chemical properties Uses Production method
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Ammonium chloride

description Chemical properties Uses Production method
Product Name
Ammonium chloride
CAS No.
12125-02-9
Chemical Name
Ammonium chloride
Synonyms
NH4CL;Amchlor;SALMIAC;Darammon;ai3-08937;Ammoneric;ammonchlor;salammonia;SAL AMMONIA;Salammonite
CBNumber
CB7129971
Molecular Formula
ClH4N
Formula Weight
53.49
MOL File
12125-02-9.mol
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Ammonium chloride Property

Melting point:
340 °C (subl.) (lit.)
Boiling point:
100 °C750 mm Hg
Density 
1.52
vapor density 
1.9 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 160.4 °C)
refractive index 
1.642
FEMA 
4494 | AMMONIA (ALSO INCLUDES AMMONIUM CHLORIDE)
storage temp. 
Store at +5°C to +30°C.
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form 
Solid
color 
White
Specific Gravity
1.53
PH
4.7 (200g/l, H2O, 25℃)(External MSDS)
Water Solubility 
soluble
λmax
λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.021
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.019
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,509
BRN 
4371014
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.
CAS DataBase Reference
12125-02-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Ammonium chloride(12125-02-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ammonium chloride (12125-02-9)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
22-36-41-37/38
Safety Statements 
22-36-26
RIDADR 
UN 3077 9 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
BP4550000
Autoignition Temperature
>400 °C
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
9
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28271000
Hazardous Substances Data
12125-02-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour); LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets)
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Warning
Hazard statements

H302Harmful if swallowed

H319Causes serious eye irritation

H335May cause respiratory irritation

H361Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child

H410Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

H411Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

Precautionary statements

P201Obtain special instructions before use.

P202Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P261Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

P264Wash skin thouroughly after handling.

P270Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P271Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P273Avoid release to the environment.

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P391Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment

P305+P351+P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

P308+P313IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.

P337+P313IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

P405Store locked up.

P403+P233Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P501Dispose of contents/container to..…

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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
1.19812
Product name
Ammonium standard solution
Purity
traceable to SRM from NIST NH?Cl in H?O 1000 mg/l NH? Certipur?
Packaging
500 mL
Price
$39.87
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
09683
Product name
Ammonium ion solution for ISE
Purity
0.1 M NH4+, analytical standard (for ion-selective electrodes)
Packaging
100ml
Price
$48.4
Updated
2019/12/02
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
326372
Product name
Ammonium chloride
Purity
99.99% trace metals basis
Packaging
25 g
Price
$49.6
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
1.01142
Product name
Ammonium chloride
Purity
EMPROVE? ESSENTIAL Ph Eur,BP,USP
Packaging
0.75 kg
Price
$51.2
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
AX1270
Product name
Ammonium Chloride
Purity
Meets ACS Specifications, Meets Reagent Specifications for testing USP/NF monographs GR ACS
Packaging
500 g
Price
$63.82
Updated
2021/03/22
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Ammonium chloride Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

description

Ammonium chloride (referred to as "chloramine", also known as halogen sand, chemical formula: NH4Cl) is colorless cubic crystal or white crystalline powder. It tastes salty and slightly bitter and belongs to acid salt. Its relative density is 1.527. It is soluble in water, ethanol and liquid ammonia but insoluble in acetone and ether. The aqueous solution is weakly acidic, and its acidity is enhanced while heating. When heated to 100 ° C, it begins to significantly volatilize, and when heated to 337.8  ° C, it will dissociate into ammonia and hydrogen chloride, which, on cold exposure, will re-combine to produce small particles of ammonium chloride and white smoke that is not easy to sink and very difficult to be dissolved in water. When heated to 350 ° C ,it will sublimate and when 520 ° C, it will boil. Its moisture absorption is small, and in the wet rainy weather can absorb moisture to cake. For the ferrous metals and other metals, it is corrosive, which, in particular, has greater corrosion of copper but no corrosion of pig iron. Ammonium chloride can be obtained from the neutralization reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride or ammonia and hydrochloric acid (reaction equation: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl). When heated, it will decompose into hydrogen chloride and ammonia reaction (equation: NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl) and the reaction is only to the right if the container is open system.

ammonium chloride powder

Chemical properties

Ammonium chloride NH4Cl (also called sal ammoniac) is a colourless crystal or white granular powder that dissolves easily in water.It is odourless and has a salty and bitter taste. It sublimes on heating to form ammonia and hydrogen chloride (gas). It is commonly used in the baked goods industry, as a functional salt and as a dough improver for yeasts.It gives the dough good elasticity,extensibility, and machinability, producing breads with good quality characteristics in terms of volume,colour, aroma, texture,and elasticity.Ammonium chloride is considered safe in small amounts. The Us Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted ammonium hydroxide status as a GRAS, or Generally Recognized as Safe, substance in 1974 and it is also recognised as a food additive in the EU.

Uses

Ammonium chloride is mainly used for dry batteries, storage batteries, ammonium salts, tanning, plating, medicine, photography, electrodes, adhesives, etc. Ammonium chloride is also an available nitrogen chemical fertilizer whose nitrogen content is 24% to 25%. It is a physiological acidic fertilizer and suitable for wheat, rice, corn, rapeseed and other crops. It have the effects of enhancing fiber toughness and tension and improving quality especially for cotton and linen crops. However, due to the nature of ammonium chloride, if the application is not right, it will bring some adverse effects to soil and crops.
Technical conditions: the implementation of the People's Republic of China national standard GB-2946-82.
1. Appearance: white crystal
2. ammonium chloride content (dry basis) ≥ 99.3%
3. moisture content ≤1.0%
4. sodium chloride content (dry basis) ≤0.2%
5. iron content ≤0.001%
6. heavy metal content (in terms of Pb) ≤0.0005%
7. water insoluble content ≤0.02%
8. sulfate content (in terms of SO42-) ≤0.02%
9. pH: 4.2-5.8

Production method

(1) Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the chemical ammonium chloride is finished.
(2) Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystallization. The obtained mixture is then filtrated and separated to remove sulfuric acid Sodium. Add arsenic removal and heavy metal removal to the filtrate and filtrate to remove arsenic, heavy metals and other impurities. The filtrate is sent to a cooling crystallizer and is cooled to 32-35 ℃ to precipitate the crystals. The crystals are filtered and washed with ammonium chloride solution, and then are dehydrated by centrifugal separation and dried to obtain finished edible ammonium chloride.  Reaction formula:
(NH4) 2SO4 + 2NaCl→2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the edible ammonium chloride is finished.
(3) The mother liquor was filtrated by associated alkali method and cooled for crystallization, and then add salt powder to salt out the product.
It can also be obtained by derived replacement reaction of ammonium sulfate and calcium chloride in aqueous solution.
(4) Gas-liquid phase synthesis: hydrogen chloride gas is added from the bottom of the turbulence absorption tower and then contact with the circulating mother liquor flowing from overhead spray to generate chloride mother liquor containing saturated ammonium chloride. Chloride mother liquor then flows into the reactor and react with   ammonia gas to form a saturated ammonium chloride solution. The obtained solvents are sent to the cooling crystallizer and cooled to 30~45 ° C to precipitate supersaturated ammonium chloride crystals. The ammonium chloride solution in the upper part of the crystallizer is sent to the air cooler for cooling and circulating to the crystallizer; the crystal slurry in the lower part of the crystallizer is thickened by thickening thickener and centrifuged for separation to obtain ammonium chloride. Reaction formula:
HCl + NH3 → NH4Cl
The mother liquor separated by centrifugation is sent to the turbulent absorption tower for recycling.
Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystals. The obtained mixture is then filtrated to remove sulfuric acid Sodium and the filtrate is sent to cooling crystallizer and cooled to 32 to 35 ℃ for crystallization. Then the crystals of ammonium chloride is obtained by filtration and  respectively washed by 4 different concentrations (15~17°Bé,11~12°Bé,10°Bé,9.5~10°Bé) of ammonium chloride solution, controlling Fe < 0.008%, SO42-< 0.001%. After elution to qualified, use ammonium chloride solution to remake the crystals into slurry, put into the centrifuge for separation and dehydration. And then dry by hot air and obtain the industrial ammonium chloride products. Reaction formula:
2NaCl + (NH4) 2SO4 → 2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
The mother liquor is sent to the metathesis reactor for recycling. The separated sodium sulfate is filtered to produce sodium sulfate. The crude ammonium chloride is added into the dissolving device, dissolved in the steam and filtered. The filtrate is cooled for crystallization, centrifugalized and dried to obtain the finished products of industrial ammonium chloride. The mother liquor from the centrifugal separation is returned to the dissolver for use.

Chemical Properties

Ammonium chloride,Nl4CI, also known as ammoniae, salmiai,and ammonium nituriate,is a white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water, aqueous solutionsof ammonia, and is slightly soluble in methyl alcohol. Ammonium chloride is found in natureas a sublimation productof volcanic activity, or is produced by neutralizing HCI(either in liquid or gaseousphase) with NH3 gas or liquid NH40H then evaporating the excess H20. The salt decomposes at350°C and sublimes under controlled conditions at 520 °C. Ammoniumchlorideis used as an electrolyte in dry cell batteries,as a fluxfor soldering, tinningandgalvanizing, andas a processing ingredientin textile printing and hide tanning. Use as a source of nitrogen for fertilizersis limited because of the possible build up of damaging chloride residuals in the soil.

Physical properties

Colorless cubic crystals or white granular powder; saline taste; odorless; hygroscopic; does not melt but sublimes on heating at 340°C; vapor pressure 48.75 torr at 250°C and 251.2 torr at 300°C; density 1.5274 g/cm3 at 25°C; refractive index 1.642; readily dissolves in water, solubility: 229 g and 271 g/L solution at O°C and 20°C, respectively; solubility lowered by alkali metal chlorides and HCl; dissolution lowers the temperature of the solution; sparingly soluble in alcohols (6 g/L at 19°C) and soluble in liquid NH3; insoluble in acetone and ether.

Occurrence

Ammonium chloride occurs in nature in crevices near volcanoes. Also, it is found in smoke when burning dry camel or donkey dung as fuel. Important applications of this compound include the manufacture of dry cells for batteries; as a metal cleaner in soldering; as a flux in tin coating and galvanizing; in fertilizers; in pharmaceutical applications as a diuretic, or diaphoretic expectorant; and as an analytical standard in ammonia analysis. Also, it is used in freezing mixtures; washing powders; lustering cotton; in safety explosives and in dyeing and tanning.

Uses

ammonium chloride is used as a thickener and as an additive in non-alcoholic toners. According to cosmetic formulators, the ammonium component provides the tingling or stinging sensation that some people associate with toners or aftershaves, and which, in regular toners, is usually provided by the alcohol content. Ammonium chloride’s use is the result of preference in formulation feel.

Uses

Ammonium Chloride is a dough conditioner and yeast food that exists as colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. approximately 30–38 g dissolves in water at 25°c. the ph of a 1% solution at 25°c is 5.2. it is used as a dough strengthener and flavor enhancer in baked goods and as a nitrogen source for yeast fermentation. it is also used in condiments and relishes. another term for the salt is ammonium muriate.

Uses

White crystals made by ammonia salts acting upon hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization. Ammonium chloride is also known as sal ammoniac. Soluble in water and alcohol, ammonium chloride was used as a halide in many processes, including the salted paper, albumen paper, albumen opaltype, and gelatin emulsion processes.

Definition

ChEBI: An inorganic chloride having ammonium as the counterion.

Production Methods

Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia with hydrochloric acid.

Definition

sal ammoniac: A white or colourless cubicsolid, NH4Cl; r.d. 1.53; sublimes at340°C. It is very soluble in water andslightly soluble in ethanol but insolublein ether. It may be prepared byfractional crystallization from a solutioncontaining ammonium sulphateand sodium chloride or ammoniumcarbonate and calcium chloride. Puresamples may be made directly by thegas-phase reaction of ammonia andhydrogen chloride. Because of itsease of preparation it can be manufacturedindustrially alongside anyplant that uses or produces ammonia.The compound is used in drycells, metal finishing, and in thepreparation of cotton for dyeing andprinting.

General Description

Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid. Ammonium chloride is soluble in water(37%). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Ammonium chloride is used to make other ammonium compounds, as a soldering flux, as a fertilizer, and for many other uses.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water. Slowly releases hydrogen chloride [USCG, 1999].

Reactivity Profile

Acidic salts, such as Ammonium chloride , are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.

Hazard

Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant.

Health Hazard

Inhalation of fumes irritates respiratory passages. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Fumes are irritating to eyes. Contact with skin may cause irritation.

Agricultural Uses

Ammonium chloride, like all other ammonium salts, is used as a fertilizer. It contains 24 to 26% nitrogen and is available as white crystals or granules. A coarse form of this fertilizer is preferred to the powdered form for direct application. Its crystals are used in compound fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is a good source of nitrogen for cotton, rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar cane and fiber crops. It is easy to handle. In some cases, however, the material tends to become lumpy and difficult to spread.
Ammonium chloride is used either directly for fertilization or in a variety of compound fertilizers, such as ammonium phosphate chloride or ammonium potassium chloride or in combination with urea or ammonium sulphate.
As a fertilizer, ammonium chloride has an advantage in that it contains 26% nitrogen, which is higher than that found in ammonium sulphate (20.5%). In terms of per unit cost of nitrogen, ammonium chloride is relatively cheaper than ammonium sulphate and has some agronomic advantages for rice. Nitrification of ammonium chloride is less rapid than that of urea or ammonium sulphate. Therefore, nitrogen losses are lower and yields, higher.
However, ammonium chloride is a highly acid forming fertilizer and the amount of calcium carbonate required to neutralize the acidity is more than the fertilizer itself, Further, it has a lower nitrogen content and a higher chloride content compared to urea and ammonium nitrate, making it harmful to some plants.
Several methods are used to produce ammonium chloride. The most important is the dual-salt process (modified Solvay process) wherein ammonium chloride and sodium carbonate are produced simultaneously using common salt and anhydrous ammonia as the principal starting materials. When ammonium chloride is mixed with phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, a large amount of soil calcium is lost as its conversion into soluble calcium chloride causes it to leach out easily.
Like ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride can be applied to wet land crops. In terms of the agronomic suitability, it is generally rated as equal to other straight nitrogenous fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is, however, not ideal for grapes, chilies, potatoes and tobacco as the added chlorine affects the quality and storability of these crops.
Industrial uses of ammonium chloride are in dry-battery manufacture and as a flux for soldering and brazing.

Safety

Ammonium chloride is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations. The pure form of ammonium chloride is toxic by SC, IV, and IM routes, and moderately toxic by other routes. Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system: cough, dyspnea, and pulmonary sensitization. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.44 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.3 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IM): 0.03 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.65 g/kg

Potential Exposure

Ammonium chloride is used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug; to make dry batteries; in galvanizing; as a soldering flux.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

The veterinary indications for ammonium chloride are as a urinary acidifying agent to help prevent and dissolve certain types of uroliths (e.g., struvite), to enhance renal excretion of some types of toxins (e.g., strontium, strychnine) or drugs (e.g., quinidine), or to enhance the efficacy of certain antimicrobials (e.g., chlortetracycline, methenamine mandelate, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G or tetracycline) when treating urinary tract infections. Ammonium chloride has also been used intravenously for the rapid correction of metabolic alkalosis.
Because of changes in feline diets to restrict struvite and as struvite therapeutic diets (e.g., s/d) cause aciduria, ammonium chloride is not commonly recommended for struvite uroliths in cats.

storage

Ammonium chloride is chemically stable. It decomposes completely at 3388℃ to form ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Store in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.

Shipping

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it several times from conductivity water (1.5mL/g) between 90o and 0o. It sublimes. After one crystallisation, ACS grade has: metal(ppm) As (1.2), K (1), Sb (7.2), V (10.2). [Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 812 1963.]

Incompatibilities

Ammonium chloride is incompatible with strong acids and strong bases. It reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate, causing fire and explosion hazards. It also attacks copper and its compounds.

Waste Disposal

Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral syrup, tablets). Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in medicines licensed in the UK (eye drops; oral syrup).

Ammonium chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

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Ammonium chloride Suppliers

Anhui bayi chemical co. LTD
Tel
0552-4928181-
Fax
0552-3015301
Email
sales@bayichem.com
Country
China
ProdList
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Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp.
Tel
021-67601398-809
Fax
021-57711696
Email
marketing_china@spectrumchemical.com;
Country
China
ProdList
9686
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Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co,Ltd.
Tel
86-21-63210123
Fax
86-21-63290778 86-21-63218885
Email
sj_scrc@sinopharm.com
Country
China
ProdList
9844
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Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD
Tel
021-20337333-801
Fax
021-50323701
Email
market@aladdin-e.com
Country
China
ProdList
24980
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65
Xuzhou Sunyu Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
0516-82282337-
Fax
0516-82282337
Email
luqs@songyucn.com
Country
China
ProdList
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Guangzhou Helong Trading Co., Ltd.
Tel
020-82296652
Email
331033673@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
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58
JinJin Le Chemical Co., Ltd
Tel
10106090
Email
jinjinlechem@163.com
Country
China
ProdList
10000
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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
Fax
86-10-82849933
Email
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
96815
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Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
21-61259100-
Fax
86-21-61259102
Email
sh@meryer.com
Country
China
ProdList
40264
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62
future industrial shanghai co., ltd
Tel
400-0066-400;021-60496031
Fax
021-55660885
Email
sales@jonln.com;sales@jonln.com
Country
China
ProdList
1999
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View Lastest Price from Ammonium chloride manufacturers

Wuhan wingroup Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
Product
Ammonium chloride 12125-02-9
Price
US $10.00/KG
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99.9%
Supply Ability
100MT/Month
Release date
2021-07-05
Hebei Dongdu Import and Export Co. LTD
Product
Ammonium chloride 12125-02-9
Price
US $0.50/Kg/Bag
Min. Order
1T
Purity
99.5%
Supply Ability
3000tons/month
Release date
2020-11-30
Hubei Guangda Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Product
Ammonium chloride 12125-02-9
Price
US $0.00/KG
Min. Order
1T
Purity
99
Supply Ability
20T
Release date
2021-09-06

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