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Ammonium hydroxide

Product Name
Ammonium hydroxide
CAS No.
1336-21-6
Chemical Name
Ammonium hydroxide
Synonyms
Suprapur?;AMMONIA R;AMMONIA TS;aquammonia;NH3 in H2O;Ammonia 25%;AQUA AMMONIA;AMMONIA WATER;Ammonium water;Aqua ammonium
CBNumber
CB1853050
Molecular Formula
H5NO
Formula Weight
35.05
MOL File
1336-21-6.mol
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Ammonium hydroxide Property

Melting point:
-77°C
Boiling point:
36°C
Density 
0.91 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density 
1.2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution
storage temp. 
2-8°C
pka
9.3(at 25℃)
form 
Liquid, Single Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
color 
Colorless
Specific Gravity
approximate 0.96 (10%, 15℃)
Odor
Strong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm
explosive limit
27%
Water Solubility 
Miscible with water.
λmax
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,494
BRN 
3587154
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with copper, copper alloys, acids, galvanised iron, zinc, aluminium, bronze, dimethyl sulphate, mercury, alkali metals.
InChIKey
VHUUQVKOLVNVRT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
1336-21-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ammonium hydroxide (1336-21-6)
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Safety

Hazard Codes 
C,N
Risk Statements 
34-50-22
Safety Statements 
26-36/37/39-45-61
RIDADR 
UN 2672 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
BQ9625000
34
Autoignition Temperature
690 °C (for ammonia)
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
8
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28142000
Hazardous Substances Data
1336-21-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
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Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)

Symbol(GHS)
Signal word
Danger
Hazard statements

H302Harmful if swallowed

H303May be harmfulif swallowed

H314Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

H315Causes skin irritation

H318Causes serious eye damage

H335May cause respiratory irritation

H400Very toxic to aquatic life

H401Toxic to aquatic life

H402Harmful to aquatic life

H410Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

H412Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects

Precautionary statements

P260Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

P264Wash skin thouroughly after handling.

P273Avoid release to the environment.

P280Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P309IF exposed or if you feel unwell:

P310Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.

P321Specific treatment (see … on this label).

P391Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment

P301+P330+P331IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.

P303+P361+P353IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.

P305+P351+P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

P332+P313IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P405Store locked up.

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N-Bromosuccinimide Price

Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
221228
Product name
Ammonium hydroxide solution
Purity
ACS reagent, 28.0-30.0% NH3 basis
Packaging
25 mL
Price
$28.8
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
1.05426
Product name
Ammonia solution 32%
Purity
EMPLURA?
Packaging
1 L
Price
$37.37
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
221228
Product name
Ammonium hydroxide solution
Purity
ACS reagent, 28.0-30.0% NH3 basis
Packaging
100 mL
Price
$30.4
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
AX1303
Product name
Ammonium Hydroxide
Purity
Meets ACS Specifications, Meets Reagent Specifications for testing USP/NF monographs GR ACS
Packaging
500 mL
Price
$32.93
Updated
2021/03/22
Sigma-Aldrich
Product number
221228
Product name
Ammonium hydroxide solution
Purity
ACS reagent, 28.0-30.0% NH3 basis
Packaging
500 mL
Price
$42.5
Updated
2021/03/22
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Ammonium hydroxide Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Description

Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.

Chemical Properties

Ammonium hydroxide exists only in the form of an aqueous solution. The compound is prepared by dissolving NH3 in H2O and usually is referred to in industrial trade as aqua ammonia. For industrial procurements, the concentration of NH3 in solution is normally specified in terms of the specific gravity (degrees Baum′e, °Be). Common concentrations are 20 °Be and 26 °Be. The former is equivalent to a sp gr of 0.933, or a concentration of about 17.8% NH3 in solution; the latter is equivalent to a sp gr of 0.897, or a concentration of about 29.4% NH3. These figures apply at a temperature of 60 °F (15.6 °C). Reagent grade NH4OH usually contains approximately 58% NH4OH (from 28 to 30% NH3 in solution).

Uses

Ammonium Hydroxide is an alkaline that is a clear, colorless solu- tion of ammonia which is used as a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a surface finishing agent. it is used in baked goods, cheese, puddings, processed fruits, and in the production of caramels.

Uses

Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber. Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.

Definition

Ammonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.

Application

Industry
Application
Role/benefit
Food processing
Baked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddings
Leavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkaline
Meat products
Antimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to survive
Cleaning
Household and industrial cleansers
Cleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteria
Alkaline disinfectant
Main ingredient/disinfects sarin
Agriculture
Manufacture of fertilizers
Source of nitrogen
Chemical manufacture
Manufacture of alkyl amine
Precursor/source of amino
Cosmetics
Hair dyes and colors
pH adjusters/alkaline and safe
Chemical analysis
Determination of certain elements such as copper and nickel
Precipitant/ helps to precipitate various elements
Organic synthesis
Amide coupling reactions
Reagent/source of NH3
SNAr reactions
Nucleophile
Catalytic reduction of nitriles
Additive
Others
Wood staining
Stain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acids
Circuit board manufacturing
Etching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metals
Tobacco processing
Processing aid/enhances tobacco flavor
Treatment of straw for cattle
Produce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattle
Coagulation of natural rubber latex
pH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
 

General Description

Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.

Reactivity Profile

Ammonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).

Hazard

Liquid and vapor extremely irritating, especially to eyes.

Health Hazard

Ammonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

Fire Hazard

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.

Agricultural Uses

Ammonium hydroxide is also known as ammonia solution, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia or ammonia liquor. It is the solution of ammonia in water and is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed ammonia (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.

Safety Profile

A human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by inhalation and ingestion. A severe eye irritant. Human systemic irritant effects by ocular and inhalation routes. Mutation data reported. Incompatible with acrolein, nitromethane, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, halogens, (Au + aqua regia), HCl, HF, HNO3, oleum, ppropiolactone, propylene oxide, AgNO3, Ag2O, (Ag20 + C2H5OH), AgMn04, H2SO4. Dangerous; liquid can inflict burns. Use with adequate ventilation. When heated to decomposition it emits NH3 and NO2.

Potential Exposure

It is used in detergents, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, fibers, and resins.

storage

All work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact.
Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.

Shipping

UN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with .10% but not .35% ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Incompatibilities

Solution is strongly alkaline. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, acids (exothermic reaction with strong mineral acids). Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with halogens, mercury oxide; silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by contact with β-propiolactone, silver nitrate; ethyl alcoho; silver permanganate; trimethylammonium amide; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride; selenium difluoride dioxide; boron halides; mercury, chlorine, iodine; bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach; amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin; aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, zinc, and their alloys.

Waste Disposal

Dilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer.

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Ammonium hydroxide Suppliers

Zhuzhou dayuan industrial co. LTD
Tel
0731-28330408-
Fax
0731-28330728
Email
sales@zzsdy.com
Country
China
ProdList
1
Advantage
58
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD
Tel
021-20337333-801
Fax
021-50323701
Email
market@aladdin-e.com
Country
China
ProdList
24980
Advantage
65
Shanghai neon biological technology co., LTD
Tel
021-54252912-8903
Email
leona.xin@forneeds.cn
Country
China
ProdList
4776
Advantage
58
ShangHai Anpel Co, Ltd.
Tel
021-54890099
Email
shanpel@anpel.com.cn
Country
CHINA
ProdList
1584
Advantage
58
VWR(Shanghai) Co., Ltd
Tel
400-821-8006
Fax
+86-21-58558801
Email
info_china@vwr.com
Country
China
ProdList
3044
Advantage
75
Anhui Jiayun Chemical Co.,Ltd.
Tel
Email
1106048693@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
2
Advantage
58
WUHAN JIXINYIBANG BIOTECHNOLOGY .,LTD
Tel
Email
2783694916@qq.com
Country
China
ProdList
2826
Advantage
58
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel
010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
Fax
86-10-82849933
Email
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Country
China
ProdList
96815
Advantage
76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel
21-61259100-
Fax
86-21-61259102
Email
sh@meryer.com
Country
China
ProdList
40264
Advantage
62
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd.
Tel
821-50328103-801
Fax
86-21-50328109
Email
3bsc@sina.com
Country
China
ProdList
15877
Advantage
69
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View Lastest Price from Ammonium hydroxide manufacturers

Hebei Crovell Biotech Co Ltd
Product
Ammonium Hydroxide 1336-21-6
Price
US $9.00/KG
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
10 ton
Release date
2021-06-29
Wuhan wingroup Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
Product
Ammonium hydroxide 1336-21-6
Price
US $1.52/g
Min. Order
1KG
Purity
99%
Supply Ability
500Tons
Release date
2021-07-08
Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd
Product
Ammonium hydroxide 1336-21-6
Price
US $0.00-0.00/KG
Min. Order
25KG
Purity
99%+
Supply Ability
800 tons
Release date
2019-12-27

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