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Local anesthetics

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Local anesthetics are drugs that can inhibit the generation and conduction of nerve impulses in local medications. The chemical structure of these drugs and local anesthetic effects are closely related. The chemical structure must have three components:
①aromatic ring;
② the middle part, some are ester type (such as procaine), and some are amide type (such as lidocaine);
③ amine part, most  are tertiary amine, a few are amine.
The effects of local anesthetic on the nerve fiber tracts are first to inhibit the impulse conduction of sensory nerve, and then to inhibit the motor nerve, and its role is reversible.It causes a loss of sensation first to affect pain, followed by temperature sensation, and finally for the sense of touch and pressure.The effect of local anesthetic arises by drugs preventing sodium ion influx, making the nerve cell membrane cannot produce depolarization, blocking the generation of action potential and the conduction of nerve impulse. Local anesthetics act as a dissociative type on the inner side of the membrane. Since they are organic bases, they are high in the alkaline environment, and have a strong ability to pass through the cell membrane to the inside of the membrane. On the other hand, in an acidic environment ( e.g. in inflammatory conditions), their ability to pass through the membrane is poorer and the potency of local anesthesia diminishes. Local anesthetic effect mechanism is inconclusive. At present, it is believed that it may compete with calcium ions for phospholipids in the nerve cell membrane to form a more solid local complex which contains anesthetics and phospholipids, and prevent phospholipids from carrying sodium ions, thus hamper sodium ion influx.
The absorbed local anesthetic will produce excitatory effects and inhibition of the cardiovascular system on the central nervous system. The former showed convulsions, and then lead to bulbar paralysis, respiratory failure; the latter showed myocardial inhibition and vasodilation, severe cases of cardiovascular collapse and death. Therefore, when applying local anesthetics, we should prevent or reduce drug absorption into the blood.

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C7H8O
Structure:
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51-05-8
MF:
C13H21ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Lidocaine
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137-58-6
MF:
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Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ropivacaine hydrochloride
CAS:
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C17H26N2O.ClH.H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
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Structure:
Chemical Name:
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Structure:
Chemical Name:
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MF:
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Structure:
Chemical Name:
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CAS:
536-43-6
MF:
C18H28ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Lidocaine hydrochloride
CAS:
73-78-9
MF:
C14H23ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tetracaine
CAS:
94-24-6
MF:
C15H24N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Mepivacaine hydrochloride
CAS:
1722-62-9
MF:
C15H22N2O.ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dibucaine hydrochloride
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61-12-1
MF:
C20H30ClN3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Linocaine hydrochloride
CAS:
6108-05-0
MF:
C14H25ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ropivacaine
CAS:
84057-95-4
MF:
C17H26N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Elucaine
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25314-87-8
MF:
C19H23NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cinchocaine
CAS:
85-79-0
MF:
C20H29N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Trimecaine
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616-68-2
MF:
C15H24N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Pribecaine
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55837-22-4
MF:
C16H23NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Chloroprocaine hydrochloride
CAS:
3858-89-7
MF:
C13H20Cl2N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
PROPARACAINE
CAS:
298-50-0
MF:
C16H26N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ropivacaine hydrochloride
CAS:
98717-15-8
MF:
C17H27ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Oxybuprocaine
CAS:
99-43-4
MF:
C17H28N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride
CAS:
73360-54-0
MF:
C18H31ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Bupivacaine
CAS:
2180-92-9
MF:
C18H28N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DYCLONINE
CAS:
586-60-7
MF:
C18H27NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
proxymetacaine
CAS:
499-67-2
MF:
C16H26N2O3
Chemical Name:
axybuprocaine hydrochloride
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLOROETHANE
CAS:
75-00-3
MF:
C2H5Cl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
propoxycaine
CAS:
86-43-1
MF:
C16H26N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Prilocaine
CAS:
721-50-6
MF:
C13H20N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Mepivacaine
CAS:
22801-44-1
MF:
C15H22N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Etidocaine
CAS:
36637-18-0
MF:
C17H28N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
PROCAINE
CAS:
59-46-1
MF:
C13H20N2O2