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Natural amino acids and derivatives

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The amino acids are basic composites of protein, being the carboxylates containing amino groups in the molecules. There are over 200 kinds of naturally existing amino acids. But the number of amino acids constituting the animal's body and its protein product is only 20.

Structure and classification of amino acids
The structure of amino acid: amino acids obtained from protein hydrolysis are mostly α- amino acid with the α-carbon atom close to the carboxyl group bound with a amino group (-NH2 in), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom and a side chain group. The side chain can be denoted as letter R, different R leads to different amino acids; the basic structure of the amino acid formula is as follows:

Figure 1: the basic formula of amino acid.

Classification of amino acids according to the polarity of the R, amino acids can be classified into non-polar R group amino acids, uncharged polar R groups of amino acid and positively charged amino acids and negatively charged R-group amino acid. The first category includes alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline, phenylalanine, and methionine; the second category include glycine, serine, threonine, cysteine and casein acid; the third category include lysine, arginine, and threonine; fourth category include aspartic acid and glutamic acid.

In livestock production, according to different classification methods, amino acids can be divided into essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids, limiting amino acids and non-limiting amino acids.

Isomer: except the glycine (for which, the R group is a hydrogen atom), the alpha-carbons of all the rest amino acids [alpha] are asymmetric carbon atoms, thus having stereoisomers and therefore being optically active. According to the configuration of the α-carbon atom, amino acids can be divided into L-type and D-type. Amino acids originating from the proteolysis of animals and plants are all L-type. Amino acids produced by chemical synthesis and fermentation contain L-amino acids, D-amino acids and DL-amino acids of the mixture of equal amount of L and D type. Animal enzyme system can only directly use the L-amino acid for the protein synthesis of tissues. In addition to methionine, D-amino acids and DL-amino acids have very low utilization efficiency and can even not be exploited by animals.

General properties of amino acids
Physical properties natural amino acid appears as a colorless crystalline material with relatively high melting point, usually being above 200 ℃. It is usually soluble in water, insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and carboxylic proline can be dissolved in ethanol and ether. All kinds of amino acids are soluble in acid and alkali solution.
The acidity and alkalinity of amino acid amino acids are amphoteric electrolytes, being able to form salts with an acid or a base. The carboxyl group and amino group in the same molecule may also generate internal salts. In solution, amino acid is majorly in ionic form. If we adjust the pH of a certain amino acid solution to become nonconductive that the ions neither move towards cathode nor to anode, the pH of the solution in this case is referred as the isoelectric points of this amino acid, etc.

Chemical reactions related to the determination of amino acids
(1) The reaction with nitrous acid; amino acids can interact with nitrate to generate hydroxy acid and water, and quantitative release nitrogen.
(2) The reaction with 2, 4-nitro fluoro-benzene; upon near neutral or slightly alkaline conditions at room temperature, an amino group inside an amino acids molecule can react with 2, 4-nitro fluoro-benzene to generate the 2,4-nitro fluoro-benzene derivatives of amino acids, i.e., yellow DNP- amino acids.
(3) Reaction with dimethylamino-naphthalene sulfonyl chloride (DNS-CL); the fluorescent reagent DNS-CL can bind with the amino group of amino acids to form fluorescent DNS amino acid into the DNS. Lysine, histidine, aspartic acid, tyrosine and other amino acids can form pair DNS- amino acid derivatives of stable properties.
(4) The reaction with ninhydrin; α-amino acid can be oxidized and decomposed by ninhydrin to aldehyde, ammonia and CO2 while ninhydrin will be restored. The released ammonia can have condensation reaction with another molecule of ninhydrin and one molecule of ninhydrin reduction product to become blue-violet compound.

Separation and Determination of amino acids; amino acids are mostly bound amino acids; the first step of separating amino acids is using acid or base to hydrolyze protein, preparing the mixture of amino acids, then further perform partition chromatography and ion exchange chromatography for further separation and determination of amino acids.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ILE-NH2 HCL
CAS:
10466-56-5
MF:
C6H15ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-OTBU
CAS:
2812-46-6
MF:
C9H17NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-NH2
CAS:
5241-58-7
MF:
C9H12N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASP(OET)-OET HCL
CAS:
16115-68-7
MF:
C8H16ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-HIS(TRT)-OH
CAS:
35146-32-8
MF:
C25H23N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-L-CYS(TRT)-NH2 HCL
CAS:
166737-85-5
MF:
C22H22N2OS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-ASP(OBZL)-OH
CAS:
13188-89-1
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-NME2
CAS:
29802-22-0
MF:
C7H14N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-FORMYL-L-METHIONINE
CAS:
4289-98-9
MF:
C6H11NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-OBZL P-TOSYLATE
CAS:
88224-00-4
MF:
C12H15NO2.C7H8O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Biocytin
CAS:
576-19-2
MF:
C16H28N4O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-ASPARTIC ACID(OBZL)-OBZL P-TOSYLATE
CAS:
4079-64-5
MF:
C25H27NO7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-TYR-NH2 HCL
CAS:
4985-46-0
MF:
C9H12N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLU(OBZL)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
105590-97-4
MF:
C16H24ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-PRO-NH2 HCL
CAS:
50894-62-7
MF:
C5H11ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-EPSILON-ACETYL-L-LYSINE
CAS:
692-04-6
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-GLU(OTBU)-OH
CAS:
45125-00-6
MF:
C9H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLU(OALL)-OALL P-TOSYLATE
CAS:
20845-16-3
MF:
C18H25NO7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLU(OBZL)-OBZL HCL
CAS:
4561-10-8
MF:
C19H22ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-VAL-ALA-OH
CAS:
27493-61-4
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-PRO-OTBU
CAS:
90071-62-8
MF:
C9H17NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-VAL-TRP-OH
CAS:
24587-37-9
MF:
C16H21N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-HYP-OH
CAS:
18684-24-7
MF:
C10H16N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYLGLYCINE METHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
2776-60-5
MF:
C5H11ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASP(OBZL)-OBZL HCL
CAS:
6327-59-9
MF:
C18H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LEU-NH2 HCL
CAS:
80970-09-8
MF:
C6H15ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-ASP(OTBU)-OH
CAS:
117833-18-8
MF:
C10H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-DL-PRO-OH
CAS:
1074-79-9
MF:
C7H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LYS(BOC)-OME HCL
CAS:
66494-53-9
MF:
C12H25ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-TRP(BOC)-OH
CAS:
146645-63-8
MF:
C16H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-GLY-OH
CAS:
2578-57-6
MF:
C7H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-DL-LEU-OME HCL
CAS:
6322-53-8
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLY-HYP-OH
CAS:
24587-32-4
MF:
C7H12N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-DL-LEU-NH2 HCL
CAS:
10466-60-1
MF:
C6H15ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ETHYL 2-AMINO-3-HYDROXYPROPANOATE HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
3940-27-0
MF:
C5H12ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-TRP(BOC)-OH
CAS:
201290-11-1
MF:
C16H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLU(OTBU)-NH2 HCL
CAS:
108607-02-9
MF:
C9H19ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASP(OBZL)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
94347-11-2
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-TRP-OME
CAS:
2824-57-9
MF:
C14H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-DL-ASP(OME)-OME HCL
CAS:
14358-33-9
MF:
C6H12ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-HIS-NH2 2HCL
CAS:
71666-95-0
MF:
C6H12Cl2N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-SER(TBU)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
179559-35-4
MF:
C11H24ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LEU-GLY-OH
CAS:
997-05-7
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-ASPARTIC ACID-BETA-METHYL ESTER
CAS:
21394-81-0
MF:
C5H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-LYS (BOC)-OH
CAS:
23500-04-1
MF:
C13H24N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-ACETYL-L-SERINE
CAS:
5147-00-2
MF:
C5H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLY-MET-OH
CAS:
554-94-9
MF:
C7H14N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-VAL-NH2 HCL
CAS:
133170-58-8
MF:
C5H13ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-THR(TBU)-OH
CAS:
201274-81-9
MF:
C8H17NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-GLU(OME)-OH
CAS:
6461-04-7
MF:
C6H11NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DDE-LYS(FMOC)-OH
CAS:
156648-40-7
MF:
C31H36N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-NHNH2
CAS:
52386-52-4
MF:
C9H13N3O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-TYR(AC)-OH
CAS:
17355-23-6
MF:
C13H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE
CAS:
6636-22-2
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Ser-OtBu · HCl
CAS:
106402-41-9
MF:
C7H15NO3.ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-CYS(ACM)-OH HCL
CAS:
200352-41-6
MF:
C6H13ClN2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-LEUCINE ALLYL ESTER P-TOLUENESULFONATE SALT
CAS:
88224-03-7
MF:
C16H25NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Alanine Isopropyl Ester HCl
CAS:
39613-92-8
MF:
C6H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-CYS(TRT)-OH
CAS:
27486-87-9
MF:
C24H23NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-CYS(ACM)-NH2 HCL
CAS:
88530-32-9
MF:
C6H13N3O2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-GLU(OBZL)-OBZL HCL
CAS:
146844-02-2
MF:
C19H22ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-[2-(DIETHYLAMINO)ETHYL]STEARAMIDE
CAS:
16889-14-8
MF:
C24H50N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-LEU-OH
CAS:
3303-55-7
MF:
C15H22N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-CYS(DPM)-OH
CAS:
5191-80-0
MF:
C16H17NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-Asp(OtBu)-OtBu · HCl
CAS:
135904-71-1
MF:
C12H23NO4.HCl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-VAL-PNA
CAS:
52084-13-6
MF:
C11H15N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-ALA-OH
CAS:
3918-87-4
MF:
C12H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TOS-PRO-OH
CAS:
51077-01-1
MF:
C12H15NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-(acetamidomethyl)-L-cysteine
CAS:
19647-70-2
MF:
C6H12N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-LYS(ALLOC)-OH
CAS:
6298-03-9
MF:
C10H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-NHET HCL
CAS:
58107-62-3
MF:
C7H15ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ALA-ALA-OME HCL
CAS:
41036-19-5
MF:
C7H15ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-BAME
CAS:
1784-04-9
MF:
C15H22N4O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Glu(OtBu)-OBzl.HCl
CAS:
98102-32-0
MF:
C16H24ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-THR(TBU)-OME HCL
CAS:
115141-43-0
MF:
C9H20ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-LYS(Z)-OH
CAS:
6367-08-4
MF:
C16H22N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Arg(Pbf)-OH
CAS:
200115-86-2
MF:
C19H30N4O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-THREONINE BENZYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
33645-24-8
MF:
C11H16ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TOSYL-D-VALINE
CAS:
68005-71-0
MF:
C12H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LYS(Z)-OME HCL
CAS:
145586-17-0
MF:
C15H22N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-DL-MET-OME HCL
CAS:
16118-36-8
MF:
C6H14ClNO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-GLY-GLY-OH
CAS:
5687-48-9
MF:
C6H10N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-TYR-OME H2O
CAS:
2440-79-1
MF:
C12H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLY-GLY-PHE-OH
CAS:
6234-26-0
MF:
C13H17N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-THR(TBU)-OH
CAS:
163277-80-3
MF:
C10H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-GLU(OTBU)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
172793-31-6
MF:
C13H26ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TOS-ALA-OH
CAS:
99076-56-9
MF:
C10H13NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-DL-ASP-OME
CAS:
65414-77-9
MF:
C5H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-GLN(TRT)-OH
CAS:
200625-76-9
MF:
C24H24N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Aspartic Acid diethyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
112018-26-5
MF:
C8H16ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Tyr(Tos)-OH
CAS:
159505-46-1
MF:
C16H17NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-His(Trt)-OMe · HCl
CAS:
32946-56-8
MF:
C26H25N3O2.ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-Benzyl-DL-Serine
CAS:
32520-12-0
MF:
C10H13NO3
Chemical Name:
H-D-Glutamic aicd diethyl ester hydrochloride
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Glu(OMe)-OtBu
CAS:
34582-33-7
MF:
C10H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BENZOYL-D-PHE-OH
CAS:
37002-52-1
MF:
C16H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-THREONINE BENZYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
75748-36-6
MF:
C11H16ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ALA-PRO-OME HCL
CAS:
71067-42-0
MF:
C9H17ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LEU-LEU-OH
CAS:
38689-31-5
MF:
C12H24N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-SER(TBU)-OH
CAS:
77285-09-7
MF:
C9H17NO4