Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-HYDROXYMETHYL-PYRROLIDINE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER
CAS:
170491-63-1
MF:
C10H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-AMINO-3-PHENYL-1-PROPANOL
CAS:
14593-04-5
MF:
C9H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ILE-NH2 HCL
CAS:
10466-56-5
MF:
C6H15ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-OTBU
CAS:
2812-46-6
MF:
C9H17NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-NH2
CAS:
5241-58-7
MF:
C9H12N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol
CAS:
115-69-5
MF:
C4H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASP(OET)-OET HCL
CAS:
16115-68-7
MF:
C8H16ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-HIS(TRT)-OH
CAS:
35146-32-8
MF:
C25H23N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-alpha-Boc-L-tryptophanol
CAS:
82689-19-8
MF:
C16H22N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-TYR(BZL)-OH
CAS:
63769-58-4
MF:
C21H25NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-D-proline
CAS:
101555-62-8
MF:
C20H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Potassium L-aspartate
CAS:
14007-45-5
MF:
C4H5K2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-GLU(OALL)-OH
CAS:
133464-46-7
MF:
C23H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-AMINOVALERIC ACID
CAS:
660-88-8
MF:
C5H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-2-Fluorophe
CAS:
114873-10-8
MF:
C14H18FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-leucine
CAS:
1188-21-2
MF:
C8H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-p(NH-Boc)-L-Phe-OH
CAS:
174132-31-1
MF:
C29H30N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(2S)-1-(3-Acetylthio-2-methyl-1-oxopropyl)-L-proline
CAS:
64838-55-7
MF:
C11H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl N-Boc-4-Oxopyrrolidine-3-carboxylate
CAS:
146256-98-6
MF:
C12H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-ASP(OBZL)-OH
CAS:
13188-89-1
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Methylamino-1,2-propanediol
CAS:
40137-22-2
MF:
C4H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(2-Naphthyl)-D-alanine
CAS:
76985-09-6
MF:
C13H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Acetylleucine
CAS:
99-15-0
MF:
C8H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-3-Methylphe
CAS:
211637-74-0
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
QUISQUALIC ACID
CAS:
52809-07-1
MF:
C5H7N3O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,3,3-Trifluoro-DL-alanine
CAS:
17463-43-3
MF:
C3H4F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine
CAS:
15761-38-3
MF:
C8H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl (S)-2-[(S)-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl]-4-phenylbutyrate
CAS:
84793-24-8
MF:
C16H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-2,4-DIAMINOBUTYRIC ACID(FMOC)
CAS:
117106-21-5
MF:
C24H28N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Ethyl-N-hydroxyethylaniline
CAS:
92-50-2
MF:
C10H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-N'-benzyloxymethyl-L-histidine
CAS:
79950-65-5
MF:
C19H25N3O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
9-Fluorenemethanol
CAS:
24324-17-2
MF:
C14H12O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-Asp-OAll
CAS:
144120-53-6
MF:
C22H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-BENZOYL-DL-ALANINE
CAS:
1205-02-3
MF:
C10H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate
CAS:
7048-04-6
MF:
C3H10ClNO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nα-Boc-Nω-nitro-D-arginine
CAS:
50913-12-7
MF:
C11H21N5O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N,N'-Di-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine
CAS:
20866-46-0
MF:
C16H25N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide
CAS:
538-75-0
MF:
C13H22N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-4-Bromo-L-beta-phenylalanine
CAS:
261380-20-5
MF:
C14H18BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Boc-1-Naphthylalanine
CAS:
76932-48-4
MF:
C18H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-Dap-OH
CAS:
73259-81-1
MF:
C8H16N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-ACETAMIDOANTIPYRINE
CAS:
83-15-8
MF:
C13H15N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-LEU-OPFP
CAS:
86060-88-0
MF:
C27H22F5NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-3-methylbenzoic acid
CAS:
2486-70-6
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-BENZYL-L-PROLINE
CAS:
31795-93-4
MF:
C12H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-AMINO-2-CHLOROBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
108679-71-6
MF:
C7H6ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Alanine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate
CAS:
42854-62-6
MF:
C17H21NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Boc-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid
CAS:
84358-12-3
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid
CAS:
614-19-7
MF:
C9H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(+)-Phenylalaninol
CAS:
5267-64-1
MF:
C9H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-D-ALA-OH
CAS:
19436-52-3
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
19883-77-3
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-serine methyl ester
CAS:
1676-81-9
MF:
C12H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-TYR-OME
CAS:
13512-31-7
MF:
C18H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-leucinate hydrochloride
CAS:
7517-19-3
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-glutamic acid 5-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
71989-18-9
MF:
C24H27NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(Diphenylmethylene)glycerine tert-butyl ester
CAS:
81477-94-3
MF:
C19H21NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-benzyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
71989-40-7
MF:
C31H27NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(-)-ALPHA-PHENYLGLYCINE ETHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
17609-48-2
MF:
C10H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-1,4-TRANS-ACHC-OH
CAS:
53292-89-0
MF:
C12H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-BOC-O-Benzyl-L-serine
CAS:
23680-31-1
MF:
C15H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-glutamic acid
CAS:
1155-62-0
MF:
C13H15NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Melanotan II
CAS:
121062-08-6
MF:
C50H69N15O9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate
CAS:
123333-71-1
MF:
C6H12ClN3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-PYR-OH
CAS:
32159-21-0
MF:
C13H13NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Methoxypropylamine
CAS:
5332-73-0
MF:
C4H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-3-(3-pyridyl)-L-alanine
CAS:
117142-26-4
MF:
C13H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-CYANO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270065-83-3
MF:
C16H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-N'-(9-xanthenyl)-L-glutamine
CAS:
55260-24-7
MF:
C23H26N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-TYR(PO(OBZL)OH)-OH
CAS:
191348-16-0
MF:
C31H28NO8P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Aminopyridine-2-carboxylic Acid
CAS:
24242-20-4
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,6-DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID
CAS:
2577-62-0
MF:
C7H14N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine
CAS:
39537-23-0
MF:
C8H15N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Arginine ethyl ester dihydrochloride
CAS:
36589-29-4
MF:
C8H20Cl2N4O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-CYS(TRT)-OPFP
CAS:
115520-21-3
MF:
C43H30F5NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-NITRO-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
2922-40-9
MF:
C9H10N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-3,5-DIFLUOROPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
32133-37-2
MF:
C9H9F2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-(R)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid
CAS:
220498-02-2
MF:
C24H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl acetamidoacetate
CAS:
1906-82-7
MF:
C6H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-ASN(TRT)-OPFP
CAS:
132388-64-8
MF:
C44H31F5N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-METHYL-L-HISTIDINE
CAS:
368-16-1
MF:
C7H13N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-LEU-GLY-OH
CAS:
686-50-0
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2-Allylglycine Hydrochloride
CAS:
195316-72-4
MF:
C5H9NO2.ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-TRP-OSU
CAS:
3392-11-8
MF:
C20H23N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-SER-OBZL
CAS:
21209-51-8
MF:
C18H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-methyl-D-valine
CAS:
103478-58-6
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-S-(4-methoxybenzyl)-L-cysteine
CAS:
141892-41-3
MF:
C26H25NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-4-Chlorophenylalanine
CAS:
14091-08-8
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-3,3-diphenyl-L-alanine
CAS:
201484-50-6
MF:
C30H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-isoleucinate hydrochloride
CAS:
18598-74-8
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Proline-methyl ester
CAS:
59936-29-7
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(+)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol
CAS:
2026-48-4
MF:
C5H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Aminopyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid
CAS:
3167-50-8
MF:
C5H5N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLOROACETYL-L-TYROSINE
CAS:
1145-56-8
MF:
C11H12ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Boc-2-amino-3,3-diphenylpropionic acid
CAS:
143060-31-5
MF:
C20H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-alpha-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-lysine
CAS:
13734-28-6
MF:
C11H22N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine sulfate
CAS:
4327-84-8
MF:
C10H18N2O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycyl-L-valine
CAS:
1963-21-9
MF:
C7H14N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
40216-83-9
MF:
C6H12ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYL-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
721-66-4
MF:
C11H14N2O3