Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-4-Fluorophe
CAS:
41153-30-4
MF:
C14H18FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
trans-4-Cyclohexyl-L-proline
CAS:
103201-78-1
MF:
C11H19NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-6-nitrobenzoic acid
CAS:
50573-74-5
MF:
C7H6N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine
CAS:
85275-45-2
MF:
C10H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-BETA-CYCLOHEXYL-ALA-OH
CAS:
37736-82-6
MF:
C14H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Cyclopentylglycine
CAS:
109183-72-4
MF:
C12H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-AMINO-3-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID
CAS:
131690-60-3
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Fmoc-3-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
220497-48-3
MF:
C24H20BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-Valine
CAS:
84624-17-9
MF:
C20H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BENZOYL-DL-VALINE
CAS:
2901-80-6
MF:
C12H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Benzylethanolamine
CAS:
104-63-2
MF:
C9H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(-)-1-Boc-2-pyrrolidinemethanol
CAS:
69610-40-8
MF:
C10H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-HYP(BZL)-OH
CAS:
54631-81-1
MF:
C17H23NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-GLN(TRT)-OPFP
CAS:
132388-65-9
MF:
C45H33F5N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
6-Aminopyridine-2-carboxylic acid
CAS:
23628-31-1
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
cis-4-Hydroxy-L-proline
CAS:
618-27-9
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl L-leucinate hydrochloride
CAS:
2743-40-0
MF:
C8H18ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-5-methoxybenzoic acid
CAS:
6705-03-9
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-FMOC-2-Thienylalanine
CAS:
130309-35-2
MF:
C22H19NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-ETHIONINE
CAS:
67-21-0
MF:
C6H13NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine
CAS:
1027-28-7
MF:
C11H11I2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-[(S)-1-Carbethoxy-1-butyl]-(S)-alanine
CAS:
82834-12-6
MF:
C10H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-GLU(OTBU)-OH H2O
CAS:
204251-24-1
MF:
C24H29NO7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nalpha-FMOC-L-Tryptophan
CAS:
35737-15-6
MF:
C26H22N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-glutamic acid
CAS:
1188-37-0
MF:
C7H11NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
14091-16-8
MF:
C10H10F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BENZYL N-(2-HYDROXYETHYL)CARBAMATE
CAS:
77987-49-6
MF:
C10H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(-)-Asparagine monohydrate
CAS:
5794-24-1
MF:
C4H10N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Propargylglycine
CAS:
23235-01-0
MF:
C5H7NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Arginine hydrochloride monohydrate
CAS:
32042-43-6
MF:
C6H17ClN4O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-3,4-Difluorophe
CAS:
205445-51-8
MF:
C14H17F2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Boc-4-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
131724-45-3
MF:
C15H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-CYCLOPROPYLALANINE
CAS:
121786-39-8
MF:
C6H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-DL-alanine
CAS:
3744-87-4
MF:
C8H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
13033-84-6
MF:
C10H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-CYS(BZL)-OH
CAS:
53298-33-2
MF:
C25H23NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-L-Homoserine
CAS:
41088-86-2
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYL-D-VALINE
CAS:
10521-49-0
MF:
C7H14N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-THR(BZL)-OH
CAS:
69863-36-1
MF:
C19H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Glutamic acid 5-tert-butyl 1-methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
6234-01-1
MF:
C10H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Aminoisonicotinic acid
CAS:
13362-28-2
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Butoxypropanamine
CAS:
16499-88-0
MF:
C7H17NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2-Aminoadipic acid
CAS:
1118-90-7
MF:
C6H11NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-GLU(OTBU)-OPFP
CAS:
86061-04-3
MF:
C30H26F5NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-ALPHA-T-BUTYLGLYCINE
CAS:
124655-17-0
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Succinimido (S)-2-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]propionate
CAS:
3392-05-0
MF:
C12H18N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Glutamine
CAS:
56-85-9
MF:
C5H10N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-aspartic acid 4-methyl ester
CAS:
59768-74-0
MF:
C10H17NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-3-(2-pyridyl)-L-alanine
CAS:
71239-85-5
MF:
C13H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Allylglycine
CAS:
16338-48-0
MF:
C5H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-D-proline
CAS:
6404-31-5
MF:
C13H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CBZ-S-Phenyl-L-cysteine
CAS:
159453-24-4
MF:
C17H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(-)-Phenylglycinamide
CAS:
6485-67-2
MF:
C8H10N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-SER-OME
CAS:
95715-85-8
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-N-methyl-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
37553-65-4
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYL-L-THREONINE
CAS:
7093-70-1
MF:
C6H12N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl 2-aminothiophene-3-carboxylate
CAS:
31891-06-2
MF:
C7H9NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Valine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
6306-52-1
MF:
C6H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Ornithine L-aspartate salt
CAS:
3230-94-2
MF:
C9H19N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-ornithine dihydrochloride
CAS:
40216-82-8
MF:
C6H16Cl2N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Carbobenzyloxy-L-valine
CAS:
1149-26-4
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-ALLO-ISOLEUCINE
CAS:
1509-34-8
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-DAP(ALOC)-OH
CAS:
188970-92-5
MF:
C22H22N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-PHE-OME
CAS:
51987-73-6
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-tyrosinate
CAS:
1080-06-4
MF:
C10H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-LYS(BIOTIN)-OH
CAS:
146987-10-2
MF:
C31H38N4O6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Hydroxy-N-methyl-3-phenyl-propylamine
CAS:
42142-52-9
MF:
C10H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N'-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
51298-62-5
MF:
C7H16ClN5O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-Asp-OtBu
CAS:
34582-32-6
MF:
C13H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Cyclohexylalanine
CAS:
27527-05-5
MF:
C9H17NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-L-alaninol
CAS:
79069-13-9
MF:
C8H17NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-O-methyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
53267-93-9
MF:
C15H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-(R)-3-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)propionic acid
CAS:
479064-93-2
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Cysteine
CAS:
3374-22-9
MF:
C3H7NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Aminophenylacetic acid
CAS:
1197-55-3
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Aspartic acid
CAS:
1783-96-6
MF:
C4H7NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-AMINOVALERIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
627-95-2
MF:
C5H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-beta-Homoglutamic acid hydrochloride
CAS:
61884-74-0
MF:
C6H12ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-D-Phenylalaninol
CAS:
58917-85-4
MF:
C17H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl L-methionate hydrochloride
CAS:
2899-36-7
MF:
C7H16ClNO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-Serine
CAS:
1145-80-8
MF:
C11H13NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Fluoro-D-phenylalanine
CAS:
18125-46-7
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-FORMYL-L-LEUCINE
CAS:
6113-61-7
MF:
C7H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
22059-21-8
MF:
C4H7NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-D-proline
CAS:
37784-17-1
MF:
C10H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Cystine hydrochloride
CAS:
34760-60-6
MF:
C6H13ClN2O4S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(1S,2R)-(-)-cis-1-Amino-2-indanol
CAS:
126456-43-7
MF:
C9H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Aminocyclobutanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
22264-50-2
MF:
C5H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N5-[[[(2,3-Dihydro-2,2,4,6,7-pentamethyl-5-benzofuranyl)sulfonyl]amino]iminomethyl]-D-ornithine
CAS:
200116-81-0
MF:
C19H30N4O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,4-Diaminobenzoic acid
CAS:
619-05-6
MF:
C7H8N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Proline benzyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
16652-71-4
MF:
C12H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BIS(2-METHOXYETHYL)AMINE
CAS:
111-95-5
MF:
C6H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Benzotriazole-1-yl-oxytripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate
CAS:
128625-52-5
MF:
C18H28F6N6OP2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-glutamic acid 5-cyclohexyl ester
CAS:
73821-97-3
MF:
C16H27NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
HEXAFLUORO-DL-VALINE
CAS:
16063-80-2
MF:
C5H5F6NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-O-Phosphoserine
CAS:
17885-08-4
MF:
C3H8NO6P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(-)-THREO-2-AMINO-1-(4-NITROPHENYL)-1,3-PROPANEDIOL
CAS:
716-61-0
MF:
C9H12N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl L-pyroglutamate
CAS:
7149-65-7
MF:
C7H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Phenylglycinol
CAS:
3182-95-4
MF:
C9H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ALPHA-BENZOYL-L-HISTIDINE
CAS:
5354-94-9
MF:
C13H13N3O3