Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-3-(2-Naphthyl)-D-alanine
CAS:
76985-10-9
MF:
C18H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline
CAS:
2584-71-6
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-AMINO-3-(2-CHLORO-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID
CAS:
14091-11-3
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-ALANYL-L-TRYPTOPHAN
CAS:
16305-75-2
MF:
C14H17N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-hydroxyproline
CAS:
88050-17-3
MF:
C20H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Tyrosine methyl ester
CAS:
4326-36-7
MF:
C15H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-D-LYS-OH
CAS:
70671-54-4
MF:
C14H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-Leucine
CAS:
13139-15-6
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-2-Methylphe
CAS:
80102-29-0
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-3-Hydroxy-1-adamantyl-D-glycine
CAS:
361442-00-4
MF:
C17H27NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-3,4-DICHLOROPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
52794-98-6
MF:
C9H9Cl2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-D-prolinol
CAS:
83435-58-9
MF:
C10H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-alpha-Cyclohexylglycine
CAS:
14328-51-9
MF:
C8H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-Phenyl-L-cysteine
CAS:
34317-61-8
MF:
C9H11NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
42538-40-9
MF:
C9H10BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
623-33-6
MF:
C4H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-Boc-Nipecotic acid
CAS:
163438-09-3
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-3-AMINOBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
111331-82-9
MF:
C12H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2-THIENYLALANINE
CAS:
22951-96-8
MF:
C7H9NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-LYS(ALOC)-OH
CAS:
146982-27-6
MF:
C25H28N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-CYCLOPROPYLALANINE
CAS:
102735-53-5
MF:
C6H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-GLN-OH
CAS:
112898-00-7
MF:
C20H20N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-D-Tyr(tBu)-OH
CAS:
118488-18-9
MF:
C28H29NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-trityl-L-serine
CAS:
111061-56-4
MF:
C37H31NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl sarcosinate hydrochloride
CAS:
52605-49-9
MF:
C5H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-4-Fluorophenylalanine hydrochloride
CAS:
122839-52-5
MF:
C9H11ClFNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-GLY-OME
CAS:
1212-53-9
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-2-(2-Chlorophenyl)glycine
CAS:
141196-64-7
MF:
C8H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(2-Pyridyl)-D-alanine
CAS:
37535-52-7
MF:
C8H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-ALANINE METHYL ESTER
CAS:
28875-17-4
MF:
C9H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tert-Butyl 4-aminobenzoate
CAS:
18144-47-3
MF:
C11H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TOS-ARG-OH
CAS:
1159-15-5
MF:
C13H20N4O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYL-L-PROLINE
CAS:
704-15-4
MF:
C7H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-alanine
CAS:
79990-15-1
MF:
C18H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-LYS(AC)-OH HCL
CAS:
55757-60-3
MF:
C12H24N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-methyl-L-leucine
CAS:
103478-62-2
MF:
C22H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID
CAS:
61-78-9
MF:
C9H10N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-ARG(MTR)-OH CHA
CAS:
80745-09-1
MF:
C30H45N5O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FOR-VAL-OH
CAS:
4289-97-8
MF:
C6H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-ACPC-OH
CAS:
126705-22-4
MF:
C19H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-METHYL-L-THREONINE
CAS:
4144-02-9
MF:
C5H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-D-4-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
205526-34-7
MF:
C25H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl 3-aminopropionate hydrochloride
CAS:
3196-73-4
MF:
C4H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-NITRO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
127106-71-2
MF:
C15H20N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Leucine tert-butyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
2748-02-9
MF:
C10H22ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-aspartic acid 1-benzyl ester
CAS:
30925-18-9
MF:
C16H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(2-METHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
269398-80-3
MF:
C16H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-ASP-OBZL
CAS:
4779-31-1
MF:
C19H19NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-HOMOPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
135944-09-1
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Aminopyridine-2-carboxylic acid
CAS:
100047-36-7
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-LEUCYL-L-ALANINE
CAS:
7298-84-2
MF:
C9H18N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-PHE-OH
CAS:
286460-71-7
MF:
C24H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-Phenylalanine
CAS:
1161-13-3
MF:
C17H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-1-Naphthylalanine
CAS:
55516-54-6
MF:
C13H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-cycloleucine
CAS:
117322-30-2
MF:
C21H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-trityl-L-asparagine
CAS:
132388-59-1
MF:
C38H32N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-glutamic acid-gamma-benzyl ester
CAS:
123639-61-2
MF:
C27H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-cis-4-Hydroxy-L-proline
CAS:
87691-27-8
MF:
C10H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N'-(4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl)-D-arginine
CAS:
120075-24-3
MF:
C31H36N4O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-S-Trityl-L-cysteine
CAS:
21947-98-8
MF:
C27H29NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Prolinamide hydrochloride
CAS:
42429-27-6
MF:
C5H11ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Glu-OMe
CAS:
6384-08-3
MF:
C6H11NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Prolinamide
CAS:
7531-52-4
MF:
C5H10N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Asparagine
CAS:
70-47-3
MF:
C4H8N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycinamide hydrochloride
CAS:
1668-10-6
MF:
C2H7ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N,N'-Bis(9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl)-L-histidine
CAS:
98929-98-7
MF:
C36H29N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-2-Aminobutyric acid
CAS:
2835-81-6
MF:
C4H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
269726-77-4
MF:
C16H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Lysine hydrochloride
CAS:
7274-88-6
MF:
C6H15ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycyl-glycyl-glycine
CAS:
556-33-2
MF:
C6H11N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-BOC-Propargylglycine
CAS:
63039-48-5
MF:
C10H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AMINO-(3-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-PHENYL)-ACETIC ACID
CAS:
242475-26-9
MF:
C9H8F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-THREONINOL
CAS:
44520-55-0
MF:
C4H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-DIETHYLAMINOBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
5429-28-7
MF:
C11H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-4-THIAZOLYLALANINE
CAS:
205528-33-2
MF:
C21H18N2O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Homocysteinethiolactone hydrochloride
CAS:
6038-19-3
MF:
C4H8ClNOS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-4-Chlorophe
CAS:
142994-19-2
MF:
C24H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N,N-Dimethylglycine
CAS:
1118-68-9
MF:
C4H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(-)-Asparagine monohydrate
CAS:
2058-58-4
MF:
C4H8N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Glutamic acid dibenzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate
CAS:
2791-84-6
MF:
C26H29NO7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-LYS-OH
CAS:
106719-44-2
MF:
C11H22N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-4-nitro-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)aniline
CAS:
56932-44-6
MF:
C8H11N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Methyl-L-phenylalanine monohydrate
CAS:
23239-35-2
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
3588-57-6
MF:
C17H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-6-methoxybenzoic acid
CAS:
53600-33-2
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Hydroxyproline
CAS:
13726-69-7
MF:
C10H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-2-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenylaMino)propanaMide
CAS:
95713-52-3
MF:
C9H9FN4O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-Benzyl-L-cysteine
CAS:
3054-01-1
MF:
C10H13NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Plenylglycinol
CAS:
56613-80-0
MF:
C8H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-THR(TBU)-OL
CAS:
189337-28-8
MF:
C23H29NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-N'-(2-chloro-Cbz)-D-lysine
CAS:
57096-11-4
MF:
C19H27ClN2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Arginine amide dihydrochloride
CAS:
203308-91-2
MF:
C6H15N5O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Cyclopentylglycine
CAS:
2521-84-8
MF:
C7H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-O-Benzyl-D-serine
CAS:
47173-80-8
MF:
C15H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-3,4-Difluorophenylalanine
CAS:
32133-36-1
MF:
C9H9F2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid
CAS:
609-85-8
MF:
C7H5Br2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-HOMOCYSTEIC ACID
CAS:
504-33-6
MF:
C4H9NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-D-Arg(Pbf)-OH
CAS:
187618-60-6
MF:
C34H40N4O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-serine methyl ester
CAS:
2766-43-0
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-(4'-Chlorophenyl)glycine
CAS:
53994-85-7
MF:
C13H16ClNO4