Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,6-DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID
CAS:
583-93-7
MF:
C7H14N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-ASP(OALL)-OH
CAS:
146982-24-3
MF:
C22H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-FORMYL-L-METHIONINE
CAS:
4289-98-9
MF:
C6H11NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ACETYL-D-TRYPTOPHAN
CAS:
2280-01-5
MF:
C13H14N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(+)-2-Phenylglycinol
CAS:
20989-17-7
MF:
C8H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-4-cyanophenyl-D-alanine
CAS:
146727-62-0
MF:
C15H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ME-DL-ALA-OH HCL
CAS:
600-21-5
MF:
C4H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl acetamidocyanoacetate
CAS:
4977-62-2
MF:
C7H10N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Ethoxy-1-propanamine
CAS:
6291-85-6
MF:
C5H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-CHA-OH
CAS:
135673-97-1
MF:
C24H27NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
63701-37-1
MF:
C10H10F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-tert-Butyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
18822-59-8
MF:
C13H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-L-Glutamic acid 1-benzyl ester
CAS:
3705-42-8
MF:
C20H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-histidine
CAS:
2497-02-1
MF:
C8H11N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-PHE-OL
CAS:
129397-83-7
MF:
C24H23NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
allo-DL-Threonine
CAS:
144-98-9
MF:
C4H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl 2-aminopropanoate hydrochloride
CAS:
617-27-6
MF:
C5H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-GLU(OFM)-OH
CAS:
123417-18-5
MF:
C24H27NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-BETA-HOMOLEUCINE HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
96386-92-4
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-AMINO-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-ACETIC ACID
CAS:
67336-19-0
MF:
C8H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tris(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)amine
CAS:
70384-51-9
MF:
C15H33NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-2,4-DICHLOROPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
114873-04-0
MF:
C14H17Cl2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Arginine L-glutamate
CAS:
4320-30-3
MF:
C11H23N5O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4-Nitrophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
17193-40-7
MF:
C10H13ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,4-Dehydro-L-proline
CAS:
4043-88-3
MF:
C5H7NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Lysine L-glutamate
CAS:
5408-52-6
MF:
C11H23N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-PHE-OBZL P-TOSYLATE
CAS:
28607-46-7
MF:
C23H25NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid
CAS:
1571-72-8
MF:
C7H7NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Methioninol
CAS:
2899-37-8
MF:
C5H13NOS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-2-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-pentanedioic acid 5-benzyl ester
CAS:
5680-86-4
MF:
C20H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid
CAS:
997-55-7
MF:
C6H9NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-(+)-Prolinol
CAS:
23356-96-9
MF:
C5H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-O-Benzyl-L-threonine
CAS:
15260-10-3
MF:
C16H23NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-D-Serine
CAS:
6081-61-4
MF:
C11H13NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-(2-Aminoethoxy)ethanol
CAS:
929-06-6
MF:
C4H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(2-CHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
268734-29-8
MF:
C25H22ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,4-Dimethoxy-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
32161-30-1
MF:
C11H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-PHG-OH
CAS:
2900-27-8
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-FLUORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
218609-00-8
MF:
C15H20FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N'-(4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl)-L-arginine
CAS:
98930-01-9
MF:
C31H36N4O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Selenomethionine
CAS:
3211-76-5
MF:
C5H11NO2Se
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-Glycine
CAS:
4530-20-5
MF:
C7H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-Proline
CAS:
71989-31-6
MF:
C20H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2,4-Diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride
CAS:
1883-09-6
MF:
C4H12Cl2N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Magnesium dihydrogen di-L-aspartate
CAS:
2068-80-6
MF:
C4H5MgNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TERT-BUTYL 3-AMINOBENZOATE
CAS:
92146-82-2
MF:
C11H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Homophenylalanine
CAS:
943-73-7
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-Asp(Ochx)-OH
CAS:
73821-95-1
MF:
C15H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Bromo-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
24250-84-8
MF:
C9H10BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-beta-Homoalanine hydrochloride
CAS:
58610-41-6
MF:
C4H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(2-AMINOETHYL)GLYCINE
CAS:
24123-14-6
MF:
C4H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-Glutamic acid 5-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
3886-08-6
MF:
C17H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-D-Tryptophan
CAS:
2279-15-4
MF:
C19H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-LYS(TFA)-OH
CAS:
16965-06-3
MF:
C13H21F3N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-alpha-Cyclohexylglycine
CAS:
14328-52-0
MF:
C8H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(P-TOLUENESULFONYL)-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
13505-32-3
MF:
C16H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-3,4-Difluorophe
CAS:
198560-43-9
MF:
C24H19F2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl 2-amino-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylate
CAS:
5398-36-7
MF:
C6H8N2O2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-HIS(BOC)-OH
CAS:
81379-52-4
MF:
C26H27N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
beta-Methyl L-aspartate hydrochloride
CAS:
16856-13-6
MF:
C5H10ClNO4-
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-DAB HBR
CAS:
1758-80-1
MF:
C4H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Anilinoacetic acid
CAS:
103-01-5
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-AMINOTEREPHTHALIC ACID
CAS:
10312-55-7
MF:
C8H7NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-(Trifluoromethyl)-D-phenylalanine
CAS:
114872-99-0
MF:
C10H10F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Iminodiacetic acid
CAS:
142-73-4
MF:
C4H7NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
gamma-Benzyl L-glutamate
CAS:
1676-73-9
MF:
C12H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-1-N-Boc-prolinamide
CAS:
35150-07-3
MF:
C10H18N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Aminophthalic acid
CAS:
5434-21-9
MF:
C8H7NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ACETYL-DL-SERINE
CAS:
97-14-3
MF:
C5H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(2-Chlorobenzyloxycarbonyloxy)succinimide
CAS:
65853-65-8
MF:
C12H10ClNO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270596-42-4
MF:
C15H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(DIETHYLAMINO)PROPIONIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
15674-67-6
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-NORLEUCINE
CAS:
6404-28-0
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AMINO-(2-CHLORO-PHENYL)-ACETIC ACID
CAS:
88744-36-9
MF:
C8H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-L-Valinol
CAS:
79069-14-0
MF:
C10H21NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Glutamic acid monohydrate
CAS:
19285-83-7
MF:
C5H11NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamic acid
CAS:
1552-96-1
MF:
C11H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-THIAZOLIDINE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID
CAS:
51077-16-8
MF:
C9H15NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-Isoleucine
CAS:
71989-23-6
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-LYS(Z)-OME HCL
CAS:
27894-50-4
MF:
C15H23ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-2-Fluorophe
CAS:
198545-46-9
MF:
C24H20FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-SER(BZL)-OH
CAS:
20806-43-3
MF:
C18H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-3-chlorobenzoic acid
CAS:
2486-71-7
MF:
C7H6ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Serine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
5874-57-7
MF:
C4H10ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Hydroxyproline
CAS:
51-35-4
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N,N-Dimethylglycine hydrochloride
CAS:
2491-06-7
MF:
C4H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Fmoc-Allylglycine
CAS:
146549-21-5
MF:
C20H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Isoleucine allyl ester p-toluenesulfonate salt
CAS:
88224-05-9
MF:
C16H25NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-2-Chlorophe
CAS:
114873-02-8
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Hydroxy-D-(-)-2-phenylglycine
CAS:
22818-40-2
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-NLE-OH
CAS:
39608-30-5
MF:
C14H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-Azetidine-3-carboxylic acid
CAS:
193693-64-0
MF:
C19H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-tyrosinate hydrochloride
CAS:
3417-91-2
MF:
C10H14ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Glutamine
CAS:
585-21-7
MF:
C5H10N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-FLUORO-D-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
97731-02-7
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-methyl-L-aspartic acid 4-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
152548-66-8
MF:
C24H27NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-TRP-OET
CAS:
2382-80-1
MF:
C15H18N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Cysteine hydrochloride
CAS:
32443-99-5
MF:
C3H7NO2S.ClH.H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-3-nitrobenzoic acid
CAS:
1588-83-6
MF:
C7H6N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-S-trityl-D-cysteine
CAS:
167015-11-4
MF:
C37H31NO4S