Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
N2-(1S-Ethoxycarbonyl-3-phenylpropyl)-N6-trifluoroacetyl-L-lysine
CAS:
116169-90-5
MF:
C20H27F3N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-Isoleucine
CAS:
3160-59-6
MF:
C14H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-PHTHALOYL-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
5123-55-7
MF:
C17H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PRO-NME2
CAS:
29802-22-0
MF:
C7H14N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-4-Bromo-D-beta-phenylalanine
CAS:
261165-06-4
MF:
C14H18BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-2-Phenylglycinol
CAS:
7568-92-5
MF:
C8H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-CHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
218608-95-8
MF:
C15H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N6-Cbz-L-Lysine
CAS:
1155-64-2
MF:
C14H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-b-Ala-OH
CAS:
35737-10-1
MF:
C18H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-N'-Fmoc-L-Lysine
CAS:
84624-27-1
MF:
C26H32N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4,4'-BIPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
155760-02-4
MF:
C15H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-N-alpha-methyl-O-benzyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
64263-81-6
MF:
C22H27NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-D-1-Naphthylalanine
CAS:
138774-93-3
MF:
C28H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-GLYCINE METHYL ESTER
CAS:
31954-27-5
MF:
C8H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-4-CYANOPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
173963-93-4
MF:
C25H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyloxy)succinimide
CAS:
82911-69-1
MF:
C19H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-(Trifluoromethyl)-DL-phenylglycine
CAS:
142012-65-5
MF:
C9H8F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-2-THIENYLALANINE
CAS:
62561-76-6
MF:
C7H9NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-3-Fluorophe
CAS:
198560-68-8
MF:
C24H20FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Allylglycine hydrochloride
CAS:
108412-04-0
MF:
C5H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-3-(2-Naphthyl)-D-alanine
CAS:
138774-94-4
MF:
C28H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Thymosin α1
CAS:
62304-98-7
MF:
C129H215N33O55
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Diethyl L-glutamate hydrochloride
CAS:
1118-89-4
MF:
C9H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-BOC-3-Chlorophenylalanine
CAS:
80102-25-6
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BENZOYL-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
2901-76-0
MF:
C16H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-METHIONINE SULFOXIMINE
CAS:
15985-39-4
MF:
C5H12N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-D-Valino
CAS:
106391-87-1
MF:
C10H21NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Fmoc-Allylglycine
CAS:
170642-28-1
MF:
C20H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Prolinamide
CAS:
62937-45-5
MF:
C5H10N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-3-Chlorophenylalanine
CAS:
80126-52-9
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Alanine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
2491-20-5
MF:
C4H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-L-alanine hydrochloride
CAS:
1482-97-9
MF:
C3H9ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Pyroglutamic acid methyl ester
CAS:
108963-96-8
MF:
C11H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Aspartic acid dibenzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate
CAS:
2886-33-1
MF:
C25H27NO7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nalpha-Fmoc-L-tyrosine
CAS:
92954-90-0
MF:
C24H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ARG-NH2 2HCL
CAS:
14975-30-5
MF:
C6H17Cl2N5O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Nitroanthranilic acid
CAS:
619-17-0
MF:
C7H6N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-NITRO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
269398-78-9
MF:
C25H22N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-4-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
114873-07-3
MF:
C15H18F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLU(OET)-OH
CAS:
1119-33-1
MF:
C7H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
6-Aminonicotinic acid
CAS:
3167-49-5
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-beta-homovaline
CAS:
172695-33-9
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Tryptophan methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
14907-27-8
MF:
C12H15ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-VALINE METHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
5619-05-6
MF:
C6H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-NAPHTHYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270063-40-6
MF:
C29H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYL-DL-LEUCINE
CAS:
688-14-2
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(Benzyloxycarbonyloxy)succinimide
CAS:
13139-17-8
MF:
C12H11NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sermorelin
CAS:
86168-78-7
MF:
C149H246N44O42S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-2-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
263396-41-4
MF:
C10H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-(4-Aminophenyl)butyric acid
CAS:
15118-60-2
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-2-THIENYLALANINE
CAS:
78452-55-8
MF:
C12H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-3-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
205526-27-8
MF:
C25H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4-Pyridylalanine
CAS:
37535-49-2
MF:
C8H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-4-THIAZOLYLALANINE
CAS:
134107-69-0
MF:
C11H16N2O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Nitro-3-phenyl-L-alanine
CAS:
949-99-5
MF:
C9H10N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Valine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate
CAS:
16652-76-9
MF:
C19H25NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-L-lysine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
2389-48-2
MF:
C12H25ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-2-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
167993-21-7
MF:
C15H18F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-4-Methylphe
CAS:
204260-38-8
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,2-Bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane
CAS:
83558-87-6
MF:
C15H12F6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,3-Diphenyl-D-alanine
CAS:
149597-91-1
MF:
C15H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Leucine benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonate salt
CAS:
1738-77-8
MF:
C20H27NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-Phenylalanine
CAS:
35661-40-6
MF:
C24H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-PENTAFLUOROPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
198545-85-6
MF:
C24H16F5NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-N-methyl-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
2899-07-2
MF:
C18H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270596-43-5
MF:
C25H22ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Benzylglycine ethyl ester
CAS:
6436-90-4
MF:
C11H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Aminofurazan-4-carboxylic acid
CAS:
78350-50-2
MF:
C3H3N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(2-CARBOXYPHENYL)GLYCINE
CAS:
612-42-0
MF:
C9H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-N-[(4'-BOC)PIPERIDINO]PROLINE
CAS:
221352-39-2
MF:
C15H26N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-beta-homophenylalanine
CAS:
193954-28-8
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-3-(4-Fluorophenyl)alanine
CAS:
51-65-0
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Methyl-L-histidine
CAS:
332-80-9
MF:
C7H11N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Potassium (R)-[(3-ethoxy-1-methyl-3-oxoprop-1-enyl)amino]phenylacetate
CAS:
961-69-3
MF:
C14H16KNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-(4-Aminophenyl)ethanol
CAS:
104-10-9
MF:
C8H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Carbocistein
CAS:
638-23-3
MF:
C5H9NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl carnosine
CAS:
56353-15-2
MF:
C11H16N4O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-ARG(NO2)-OH
CAS:
58111-94-7
MF:
C21H23N5O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-4-fluorobenzoic acid
CAS:
446-32-2
MF:
C7H6FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(1R,2S)-2-Amino-1,2-diphenylethanol
CAS:
23190-16-1
MF:
C14H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-2-AMINOADIPIC ACID
CAS:
542-32-5
MF:
C6H11NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-4-Chlorophe
CAS:
57292-44-1
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-2-phenylglycinol
CAS:
102089-74-7
MF:
C13H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(-)-2-(Boc-Amino)-1,4-butanediol
CAS:
128427-10-1
MF:
C9H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tert-Butyl sarcosinate hydrochloride
CAS:
5616-81-9
MF:
C7H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-D-MET-OH
CAS:
28862-80-8
MF:
C13H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(2-NAPHTHYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
219297-10-6
MF:
C19H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-Arg(Pbf)-OH
CAS:
154445-77-9
MF:
C34H40N4O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Alaninamide hydrochloride
CAS:
33208-99-0
MF:
C3H9ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Boc-(4-Pyridyl)alanine
CAS:
37535-58-3
MF:
C13H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Chloro-L-tyrosine
CAS:
7423-93-0
MF:
C9H10ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Acetylamino-propionic acid
CAS:
1115-69-1
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-LEU-PNA
CAS:
4178-93-2
MF:
C12H17N3O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
95753-55-2
MF:
C24H20N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-1-butanol
CAS:
13325-10-5
MF:
C4H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(-)-2-Amino-1-propanol
CAS:
35320-23-1
MF:
C3H9NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Benzyl chloroformate
CAS:
501-53-1
MF:
C8H7ClO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid hydrochloride
CAS:
83649-48-3
MF:
C9H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-[2]PYRIDYL-B-ALANIN-ETHYL ESTER
CAS:
103041-38-9
MF:
C10H14N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-L-ISOLEUCINE DICYCLOHEXYLAMMONIUM SALT
CAS:
26699-00-3
MF:
C26H42N2O4