Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
CAS:
40856-44-8
MF:
C9H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-GLY-OSU
CAS:
3392-07-2
MF:
C11H16N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-VAL-OSU
CAS:
3496-11-5
MF:
C17H20N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-3,4-Dichlorophe
CAS:
177966-58-4
MF:
C24H19Cl2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE ETHYL ESTER
CAS:
840-97-1
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-cis-4-Hydroxy-L-proline methyl ester
CAS:
102195-79-9
MF:
C11H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid
CAS:
2457-76-3
MF:
C7H6ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Fmoc-4-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
198561-04-5
MF:
C24H20BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-TYR(ME)-OH
CAS:
77128-72-4
MF:
C25H23NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Carbobenzyloxy-beta-alanine
CAS:
2304-94-1
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-Leucine monohydrate
CAS:
16937-99-8
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid
CAS:
1462-86-8
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-BOC-D/L-PHENYLGLYCINOL
CAS:
67341-01-9
MF:
C13H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Threonine
CAS:
2592-18-9
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,5-DIFLUORO-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
32133-38-3
MF:
C9H9F2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-FMOC-4-Chlorophenylalanine
CAS:
175453-08-4
MF:
C24H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-PYR-OET
CAS:
144978-12-1
MF:
C12H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nalpha-Fmoc-L-lysine hydrochloride
CAS:
139262-23-0
MF:
C21H25ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-4-IODO-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
62129-44-6
MF:
C14H18INO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-asparagine
CAS:
2304-96-3
MF:
C12H14N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Arginine 2-oxopentanedioate
CAS:
5256-76-8
MF:
C17H38N8O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-4-Fluorophenylglycine
CAS:
93939-74-3
MF:
C8H8FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N'-Nitro-L-arginine
CAS:
2149-70-4
MF:
C6H13N5O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-PRO-NH2 HCL
CAS:
50894-62-7
MF:
C5H11ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-ASP(OTBU)-OPFP
CAS:
86061-01-0
MF:
C29H24F5NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Cyclohexylglycine
CAS:
109183-71-3
MF:
C13H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl N-(diphenylmethylene)glycinate
CAS:
69555-14-2
MF:
C17H17NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
943-80-6
MF:
C9H12N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Norvaline ethyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
40918-51-2
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Methyl-D-prolinol
CAS:
99494-01-6
MF:
C6H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-(2S,3S)-(-)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-pentanol
CAS:
106946-74-1
MF:
C11H23NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid
CAS:
2374-03-0
MF:
C7H7NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-N'-nitro-L-arginine
CAS:
2188-18-3
MF:
C11H21N5O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Serine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
5680-80-8
MF:
C4H10ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-1,3-propanediol
CAS:
534-03-2
MF:
C3H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid
CAS:
13280-60-9
MF:
C7H6N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)-L-SERINE BETA-LACTONE
CAS:
98541-64-1
MF:
C8H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Alanine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride
CAS:
14316-06-4
MF:
C4H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-BETA-ALA-OTBU HCL
CAS:
58620-93-2
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(-)Prolinol
CAS:
68832-13-3
MF:
C5H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-LYS-OH
CAS:
105047-45-8
MF:
C21H24N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-4-Chlorophe
CAS:
68090-88-0
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-THR(TBU)-OH DCHA
CAS:
16966-07-7
MF:
C28H46N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Norleucine
CAS:
616-06-8
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-aspartic acid 4-benzyl ester
CAS:
86060-84-6
MF:
C26H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropan-1-ol
CAS:
170564-98-4
MF:
C9H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Hydroxy-L-phenylglycine
CAS:
32462-30-9
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-L-Threonine benzyl ester
CAS:
16597-50-5
MF:
C19H21NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-beta-homoproline
CAS:
193693-60-6
MF:
C21H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-(S)-3-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)propionic acid
CAS:
479064-90-9
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline hydrochloride
CAS:
77449-94-6
MF:
C5H10ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-Glycinol
CAS:
105496-31-9
MF:
C17H17NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-HYP-OL
CAS:
61478-26-0
MF:
C10H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tert-Butyl L-tyrosinate
CAS:
16874-12-7
MF:
C13H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-Gln(Trt)-OH
CAS:
102747-84-2
MF:
C24H24N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-ASP-OH
CAS:
136083-57-3
MF:
C19H17NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Nitro-L-phenylalanine monohydrate
CAS:
207591-86-4
MF:
C9H12N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-proline
CAS:
68-95-1
MF:
C7H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-VALINE METHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
21685-47-2
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-N-Methyl-L-alanine
CAS:
84000-07-7
MF:
C19H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride
CAS:
5451-09-2
MF:
C5H10ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-2-Aminoadipic acid
CAS:
7620-28-2
MF:
C6H11NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
trans-4-Cyclohexyl-L-proline hydrochloride
CAS:
90657-55-9
MF:
C11H20ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASP-OTBU
CAS:
4125-93-3
MF:
C8H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-4-bromobenzoic acid
CAS:
20776-50-5
MF:
C7H6BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-Serine
CAS:
3262-72-4
MF:
C8H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-D-GLU-OH
CAS:
63648-73-7
MF:
C13H15NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-beta-homoglutamic acid 6-benzyl ester
CAS:
218943-30-7
MF:
C18H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHG-NH2 HCL
CAS:
6485-52-5
MF:
C8H10N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-cyclopropylglycine
CAS:
155976-13-9
MF:
C10H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-S-acetamidomethyl-L-cysteine
CAS:
86060-81-3
MF:
C21H22N2O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Carbobenzyloxy-L-alanine
CAS:
1142-20-7
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(2-NAPHTHYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
269398-91-6
MF:
C29H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ACPC-OET HCL
CAS:
42303-42-4
MF:
C6H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
334999-32-5
MF:
C11H21ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-AMINO-PYRAZINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID
CAS:
40155-43-9
MF:
C5H5N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Calcitonin salmon
CAS:
47931-85-1
MF:
C145H240N44O48S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-4-Nitrophe
CAS:
177966-63-1
MF:
C24H20N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-Serine
CAS:
73724-45-5
MF:
C18H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-3,4-Difluorophe
CAS:
198545-59-4
MF:
C24H19F2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-S-trityl-L-cysteine
CAS:
103213-32-7
MF:
C37H31NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LYS(Z)-OH
CAS:
34404-32-5
MF:
C14H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-tert-Butyloxycarbonyl-O-(2-bromobenzyloxycarbonyl)-D-tyrosine
CAS:
81189-61-9
MF:
C22H24BrNO7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-3-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
114873-01-7
MF:
C14H18FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-epsilon-trifluoroacetyl-L-lysine
CAS:
76265-69-5
MF:
C23H23F3N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-Aspartic acid beta-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
71989-14-5
MF:
C23H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Boc-1-Naphthylalanine
CAS:
55447-00-2
MF:
C18H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Homocysteine
CAS:
454-29-5
MF:
C4H9NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-L-Phenylalaninol
CAS:
66605-57-0
MF:
C14H21NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-CYS(ACM)-ONP
CAS:
58651-76-6
MF:
C17H23N3O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ACETYL-2-FLUORO-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
66574-84-3
MF:
C11H12FNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-LEU-OSU
CAS:
3397-35-1
MF:
C18H22N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-METHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270062-90-3
MF:
C16H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-beta-Homophenylalanine hydrochloride
CAS:
138165-77-2
MF:
C10H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(-)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol
CAS:
4276-09-9
MF:
C5H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N'-Nitro-D-arginine
CAS:
66036-77-9
MF:
C6H13N5O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-BETA-IODO-ALA-OME
CAS:
93267-04-0
MF:
C9H16INO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-THR-OH
CAS:
55674-67-4
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl 3-aminopropanoate hydrochloride
CAS:
4244-84-2
MF:
C5H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Aminoisobutyric Acid
CAS:
62-57-7
MF:
C4H9NO2