Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-3-THIENYLALANINE DCHA SALT
CAS:
83825-42-7
MF:
C12H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-Arg(Tos)-OH
CAS:
13836-37-8
MF:
C18H28N4O6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(1S,2R)-2-Amino-1,2-diphenylethanol
CAS:
23364-44-5
MF:
C14H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L(+)-Ornithine hydrochloride
CAS:
3184-13-2
MF:
C5H13ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-2-naphthoic acid
CAS:
5959-52-4
MF:
C11H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Tyrosinol hydrochloride
CAS:
87745-27-5
MF:
C9H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-TYR-NH2 HCL
CAS:
4985-46-0
MF:
C9H12N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate hydrochloride
CAS:
72784-42-0
MF:
C5H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-PHOSPHO-L-TYROSINE
CAS:
21820-51-9
MF:
C9H12NO6P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-3-AMINO-3-(3-CHLORO-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID
CAS:
262429-49-2
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-benzyl-L-serine
CAS:
83792-48-7
MF:
C25H23NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-L-SERINE BETA-LACTONE
CAS:
26054-60-4
MF:
C11H11NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
trans-1-Benzoyl-4-phenyl-L-proline
CAS:
120851-71-0
MF:
C18H17NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-STYRYLALANINE DCHA SALT
CAS:
261380-19-2
MF:
C16H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycine tert butyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
27532-96-3
MF:
C6H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Poly(L-lysine hydrobromide)
CAS:
25988-63-0
MF:
(C6H12N2OHBr)n+H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl L-tyrosinate hydrochloride
CAS:
4089-07-0
MF:
C11H16ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2-Bis(bromomethyl)benzene
CAS:
91-13-4
MF:
C8H8Br2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Boc-(3-Pyridyl)alanine
CAS:
98266-33-2
MF:
C13H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-GAMMA-ABU-OH
CAS:
57294-38-9
MF:
C9H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BETA-(2-THIENYL)-DL-ALANINE
CAS:
2021-58-1
MF:
C7H9NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-PRO-OME
CAS:
73323-65-6
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BZ-GLU-OH
CAS:
6094-36-6
MF:
C12H13NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(2R,4R)-N-Boc-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
CAS:
135042-12-5
MF:
C10H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Aceglutamide
CAS:
2490-97-3
MF:
C7H12N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-2-NAL-OH
CAS:
112883-43-9
MF:
C28H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4-Iodophenylalanine
CAS:
24250-85-9
MF:
C9H10INO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-CYS(4-MEOBZL)-OH
CAS:
18942-46-6
MF:
C16H23NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-DAP(BOC)-OH
CAS:
198544-42-2
MF:
C23H26N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-Methyl-L-cysteine
CAS:
1187-84-4
MF:
C4H9NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLU(OBZL)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
105590-97-4
MF:
C16H24ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-3-Aminobutyric acid
CAS:
2835-82-7
MF:
C4H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N'-trityl-D-histidine
CAS:
135610-90-1
MF:
C40H33N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CBZ-BETA-AMINO-D-ALANINE
CAS:
62234-37-1
MF:
C11H14N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid
CAS:
98303-20-9
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-LEUCYL-GLYCYL-GLYCINE
CAS:
1187-50-4
MF:
C10H19N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(p-Tolylsulphonyl)-L-glutamic acid
CAS:
4816-80-2
MF:
C12H15NO6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
METHYL 3-AMINOBENZOATE
CAS:
4518-10-9
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-MEPHE-OH DCHA
CAS:
102185-45-5
MF:
C27H44N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Asparagine monohydrate
CAS:
3130-87-8
MF:
C4H8N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
11-Aminoundecanoic acid
CAS:
2432-99-7
MF:
C11H23NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-NVA-OH
CAS:
21691-44-1
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Dimethylaminobenzoic acid
CAS:
619-84-1
MF:
C9H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-7-AMINO-HEPTANOIC ACID
CAS:
60142-89-4
MF:
C12H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Boc-4-methylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid
CAS:
189321-63-9
MF:
C12H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-methyl-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
77128-73-5
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-3-Aminomethylbenzoic acid
CAS:
117445-22-4
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-histidine
CAS:
14997-58-1
MF:
C14H15N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Methoxy-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
6230-11-1
MF:
C10H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Aspartic acid 4-benzyl ester
CAS:
2177-63-1
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-beta-homoalanine
CAS:
193954-26-6
MF:
C19H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-D-aspartic acid
CAS:
78663-07-7
MF:
C12H13NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-6-Trifluoroacetyl-L-lysine
CAS:
10009-20-8
MF:
C8H13F3N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ALPHA-BENZOYL-L-ARGININE
CAS:
154-92-7
MF:
C13H18N4O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-Cbz-L-cysteine
CAS:
1625-72-5
MF:
C11H13NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
6-METHYL-DL-TRYPTOPHAN
CAS:
2280-85-5
MF:
C12H14N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(-)-ALPHA-[1-(DIBUTYLAMINO)ETHYL]BENZYL ALCOHOL
CAS:
114389-70-7
MF:
C17H29NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-PHE(4-NHBOC)-OH
CAS:
214750-77-3
MF:
C29H30N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)BUTANOIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
270596-53-7
MF:
C10H12FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-N-ME-SER-OH
CAS:
101772-29-6
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ALPHA-METHYL-L-VALINE HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
53940-83-3
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
PTH-VALINE
CAS:
4333-20-4
MF:
C12H14N2OS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-BORONO-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
76410-58-7
MF:
C9H12BNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(3-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270065-77-5
MF:
C16H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
P-AMINO-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
2922-41-0
MF:
C9H12N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-2'-METHYLPHENYLALANINE HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
22888-51-3
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(2-FLUOROPHENYL)GLYCINE
CAS:
2343-27-3
MF:
C8H8FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-DL-NORVALINE
CAS:
21691-43-0
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASP(OBZL)-OBZL HCL
CAS:
6327-59-9
MF:
C18H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-TERT-LEUCINOL
CAS:
112245-13-3
MF:
C6H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-2-NITROPHENYLSULFENYL-L-VALINE DICYCLOHEXYLAMMONIUM SALT
CAS:
7675-57-2
MF:
C23H37N3O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-TYR(ET)-OH
CAS:
76757-91-0
MF:
C16H23NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-LEU-NH2 HCL
CAS:
80970-09-8
MF:
C6H15ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid gamma-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
13726-84-6
MF:
C14H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate
CAS:
24424-99-5
MF:
C10H18O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(+/-)-BOC-ALPHA-PHOSPHONOGLYCINE TRIMETHYL ESTER
CAS:
89524-98-1
MF:
C10H20NO7P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(R)-3-AMINO-5-PHENYLPENTANOIC ACID
CAS:
269398-87-0
MF:
C26H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-IODO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
269396-71-6
MF:
C15H20INO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-AMINO-5-PHENYLPENTANOIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
218278-62-7
MF:
C11H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-LEUCYL-L-TYROSINE
CAS:
968-21-8
MF:
C15H22N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-IODOPHENYL)BUTANOIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
269396-70-5
MF:
C10H12INO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-ISOLEUCINOL HCL
CAS:
133736-94-4
MF:
C6H16ClNO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4-Chlorophenylalanine
CAS:
14173-39-8
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-(+)-Isoleucinol
CAS:
24629-25-2
MF:
C6H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-Phenylglycinol
CAS:
117049-14-6
MF:
C13H19NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-Glycine
CAS:
29022-11-5
MF:
C17H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ALPHA-ACETYL-L-ARGININE
CAS:
155-84-0
MF:
C8H16N4O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Phenyl-L-alanine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulphonate
CAS:
1738-78-9
MF:
C23H25NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-tryptophanate hydrochloride
CAS:
7524-52-9
MF:
C12H15ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-DL-ASPARTIC ACID
CAS:
4515-21-3
MF:
C12H13NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-2-Amino-2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid
CAS:
96886-55-4
MF:
C6H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-TYR(TBU)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
17083-23-7
MF:
C17H28ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-MET-OH DCHA
CAS:
22823-50-3
MF:
C22H42N2O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-CYCLOPROPYLALANINE
CAS:
214750-76-2
MF:
C21H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl-DL-serine hydrochloride
CAS:
5619-04-5
MF:
C4H10ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-AMINO-4-(3-TRIFLUOROMETHYLPHENYL)BUTANOIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
270065-76-4
MF:
C11H12F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-O-tert-Butyl-L-serine
CAS:
71989-33-8
MF:
C22H25NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-2-methylbenzoic acid
CAS:
2486-75-1
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-(benzylphospho)-L-threonine
CAS:
175291-56-2
MF:
C26H26NO8P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-O-tert-Butyl-L-threonine
CAS:
71989-35-0
MF:
C23H27NO5