Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-L-arginine hydrochloride
CAS:
56672-63-0
MF:
C14H21ClN4O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TRANS-2-AMINOCYCLOHEXANOL HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
5456-63-3
MF:
C6H14ClNO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-lysinate dihydrochloride
CAS:
26348-70-9
MF:
C7H18Cl2N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ne-Boc-L-lysine
CAS:
2418-95-3
MF:
C11H22N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-O-tert-butyl-L-serine dicyclohexylamine salt
CAS:
18942-50-2
MF:
C24H46N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-NVA-OH
CAS:
144701-24-6
MF:
C20H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(-)-2-(2,5-Dihydrophenyl)glycine
CAS:
26774-88-9
MF:
C8H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(2R,3S)-3-Phenylisoserine hydrochloride
CAS:
132201-32-2
MF:
C9H12ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methoxycarbonyl-L-tert-leucine
CAS:
162537-11-3
MF:
C8H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(2-CHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
218608-93-6
MF:
C15H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(+)-(2-Chlorophenyl)glycine
CAS:
86169-24-6
MF:
C8H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-FLUORO-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
2629-55-2
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-glutamic acid 1-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
24277-39-2
MF:
C14H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid
CAS:
10569-72-9
MF:
C4H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Methyl-L-prolinol
CAS:
34381-71-0
MF:
C6H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
CAS:
328-38-1
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
537-55-3
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-3,4-Dichlorophe
CAS:
114873-13-1
MF:
C14H17Cl2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ARG(MTR)-OH
CAS:
80745-10-4
MF:
C16H26N4O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-3-AMINO-3-(4-FLUORO-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID
CAS:
151911-23-8
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-BENZYL-DL-SERINE
CAS:
5445-44-3
MF:
C10H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid
CAS:
35453-19-1
MF:
C8H4I3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-2-PYRIDYLALANINE
CAS:
185379-40-2
MF:
C23H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-L-tert-Leucine
CAS:
62965-10-0
MF:
C14H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-4-Amino-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
55533-24-9
MF:
C14H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Boc-3-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
CAS:
161024-80-2
MF:
C14H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(1R,3S)-3-Aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
71830-08-5
MF:
C6H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl L-tryptophanate hydrochloride
CAS:
2899-28-7
MF:
C13H17ClN2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-3-Pyridylalanine
CAS:
64090-98-8
MF:
C8H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-tert-leucine
CAS:
132684-60-7
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-GLN-OTBU HCL
CAS:
39741-62-3
MF:
C9H19ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-N-methyl-L-valine
CAS:
45170-31-8
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-tert-Butyl-L-serine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
17114-97-5
MF:
C8H18ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(-)-N-(3,5-DINITROBENZOYL)-ALPHA-PHENYLGLYCINE
CAS:
74927-72-3
MF:
C15H11N3O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TERT-BUTYL N-(2-HYDROXYETHYL)CARBAMATE
CAS:
26690-80-2
MF:
C7H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-HIS-OH
CAS:
50654-94-9
MF:
C11H17N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-2-phenylacetic acid
CAS:
2835-06-5
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2-Chlorophenylglycine
CAS:
141315-50-6
MF:
C8H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-FORMYL-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
13200-85-6
MF:
C10H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-Threonine
CAS:
19728-63-3
MF:
C12H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Anilinoethanol
CAS:
122-98-5
MF:
C8H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-GLUTAMINE METHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
32668-14-7
MF:
C6H13ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-alpha-FMOC-Nepsilon-BOC-L-Lysine
CAS:
71989-26-9
MF:
C26H32N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Isoleucine
CAS:
443-79-8
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARIC ACID
CAS:
503-49-1
MF:
C6H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-3-Amino-4-phenylbutyric acid hydrochloride
CAS:
145149-50-4
MF:
C10H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-DL-VALINE
CAS:
3588-63-4
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Alanyl-L-alanine
CAS:
1948-31-8
MF:
C6H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-4-Iodophenylalanine
CAS:
82565-68-2
MF:
C24H20INO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Norvaline
CAS:
760-78-1
MF:
C5H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-LYS(BOC)-OH DCHA
CAS:
2212-76-2
MF:
C31H51N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-AMINO-3,5-DICHLOROBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
56961-25-2
MF:
C7H5Cl2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-2-Fluorophe
CAS:
205526-26-7
MF:
C24H20FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Norleucine
CAS:
327-57-1
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-[(tert-Butoxycarbonylamino)methyl]benzoic acid
CAS:
33233-67-9
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Methioninol
CAS:
87206-44-8
MF:
C5H13NOS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-NVA-OH
CAS:
135112-28-6
MF:
C20H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-CYS-OH
CAS:
20887-95-0
MF:
C8H15NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-D-cyclopropylglycine
CAS:
609768-49-2
MF:
C10H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Weinreb Linker
CAS:
247021-90-5
MF:
C19H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-O-tert-butyl-L-tyrosine dicyclohexylamine salt
CAS:
16879-90-6
MF:
C33H48N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-AMINO-2-METHOXYBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
2486-80-8
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-alpha-Cbz-L-2,4-diamiobutyric acid
CAS:
62234-40-6
MF:
C12H16N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-4-Fluorophenylglycine
CAS:
19883-57-9
MF:
C8H8FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-LYS(AC)-OH
CAS:
6404-26-8
MF:
C13H24N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
2018-61-3
MF:
C11H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-2-BROMOPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
220497-79-0
MF:
C24H20BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Fmoc-1-Naphthylalanine
CAS:
96402-49-2
MF:
C28H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-HIS(DNP)-OH
CAS:
25024-53-7
MF:
C17H19N5O8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-D-Phenylglycine
CAS:
33125-05-2
MF:
C13H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-DL-methionine
CAS:
1115-47-5
MF:
C7H13NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Boc-(4-Pyridyl)alanine
CAS:
37535-57-2
MF:
C13H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N'-Acetyl-L-lysine
CAS:
159766-56-0
MF:
C23H26N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-2-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
263396-42-5
MF:
C10H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-TYR-OH
CAS:
1164-16-5
MF:
C17H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-GLU-OME
CAS:
5672-83-3
MF:
C14H17NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(HYDROXYMETHYL)ACETAMIDE
CAS:
625-51-4
MF:
C3H7NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-2-aminopent-4-ynoic acid
CAS:
87205-47-8
MF:
C5H7NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2,4-DICHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270063-48-4
MF:
C15H19Cl2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,2'-((4-((2-Hydroxyethyl)amino)-3-nitrophenyl)imino)bisethanol
CAS:
33229-34-4
MF:
C12H19N3O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-PYR-OH
CAS:
53100-44-0
MF:
C10H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-D-ARG-OH
CAS:
6382-93-0
MF:
C14H20N4O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-tryptophan
CAS:
1218-34-4
MF:
C13H14N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-histidinate dihydrochloride
CAS:
7389-87-9
MF:
C7H13Cl2N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Acetamidoacrylic acid
CAS:
5429-56-1
MF:
C5H7NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Asparagine tert-butyl ester
CAS:
25456-86-4
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Aminoisonicotinic acid
CAS:
7579-20-6
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
218608-96-9
MF:
C15H20ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-Tryptophan
CAS:
7432-21-5
MF:
C19H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Benzyl glycinate hydrochloride
CAS:
2462-31-9
MF:
C9H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Aminophenylacetic acid
CAS:
14338-36-4
MF:
C8H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Valine benzyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
2462-34-2
MF:
C12H18ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-ALANYL-L-TYROSINE
CAS:
3061-88-9
MF:
C12H16N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-PHG-OH
CAS:
53990-33-3
MF:
C16H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-glutamic acid
CAS:
121343-82-6
MF:
C20H19NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-(Cbz-amino)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
84677-06-5
MF:
C12H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-4-Fluorophe
CAS:
169243-86-1
MF:
C24H20FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Dimethylamino-1-propanol
CAS:
3179-63-3
MF:
C5H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Homoserine
CAS:
1927-25-9
MF:
C4H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N'-Trityl-L-asparagine
CAS:
132388-58-0
MF:
C23H22N2O3