Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Glycyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
658-79-7
MF:
C11H14N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-3-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
263396-43-6
MF:
C10H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Hydroxyanthranilic acid
CAS:
394-31-0
MF:
C7H7NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-ASPARTIC ACID(OBZL)-OBZL P-TOSYLATE
CAS:
4079-64-5
MF:
C25H27NO7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-AMINOPYRIMIDINE-5-CARBOXYLIC ACID
CAS:
20737-41-1
MF:
C5H5N3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Carbobenzyloxy-L-glutamine
CAS:
2650-64-8
MF:
C13H16N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(3S)-3-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonylamino)-5-oxo-5-[tri(phenyl)methylamino]pentanoic acid
CAS:
283160-20-3
MF:
C39H34N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-4-Nitrophe
CAS:
61280-75-9
MF:
C14H18N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N-Methyl-O-tert-butyl-L-serine
CAS:
197632-77-2
MF:
C23H27NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-BOC-3-Chlorophenylalanine
CAS:
114873-03-9
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-beta-homoisoleucine
CAS:
193954-27-7
MF:
C22H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Alaninol
CAS:
6168-72-5
MF:
C3H9NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-4-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
247113-86-6
MF:
C25H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-N-Fmoc-3-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
220497-81-4
MF:
C24H20BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(3-METHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270062-94-7
MF:
C26H25NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-Isoleucine
CAS:
13139-16-7
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-3-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
57213-48-6
MF:
C10H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-LYS(BOC)-OH DCHA
CAS:
15098-69-8
MF:
C28H53N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Aminophenethanol
CAS:
5339-85-5
MF:
C8H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-D-threonine
CAS:
138797-71-4
MF:
C23H27NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nalpha-FMOC-L-Glutamine
CAS:
71989-20-3
MF:
C20H20N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid
CAS:
535-87-5
MF:
C7H8N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-METHYL-D-TYROSINE
CAS:
39878-65-4
MF:
C10H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Tryptophanol
CAS:
2899-29-8
MF:
C11H14N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Homophenylalanine
CAS:
1012-05-1
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Validamine
CAS:
32780-32-8
MF:
C7H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-TIC-OH
CAS:
78879-20-6
MF:
C15H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-CYS(BZL)-OME HCL
CAS:
16741-80-3
MF:
C11H16ClNO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-6-chlorobenzoic acid
CAS:
2148-56-3
MF:
C7H6ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL)GLYCINE
CAS:
122-87-2
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-4-IODOPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
205526-29-0
MF:
C24H20INO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-CYS(ACM)-OH
CAS:
19746-37-3
MF:
C11H20N2O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-D-alaninol
CAS:
106391-86-0
MF:
C8H17NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-AMINO-3,4,5-TRIMETHOXYBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
61948-85-4
MF:
C10H13NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Amino-1-pentanol
CAS:
2508-29-4
MF:
C5H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
12-AMINODODECANOIC ACID
CAS:
693-57-2
MF:
C12H25NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
13734-34-4
MF:
C14H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl N-Boc-piperidine-4-carboxylate
CAS:
142851-03-4
MF:
C13H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-Arg(Pmc)-OH
CAS:
119831-72-0
MF:
C35H42N4O7S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Fmoc-3-Thienylalanine
CAS:
186320-06-9
MF:
C22H19NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-(N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methylphenylenediamine sulfate
CAS:
25646-77-9
MF:
C11H20N2O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Ornithine 2-oxoglutarate
CAS:
5191-97-9
MF:
C10H18N2O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-1-N-Boc-piperazine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester
CAS:
796096-64-5
MF:
C11H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Threonine benzyl ester hemioxalate
CAS:
86088-59-7
MF:
C13H17NO7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
6-Amino-1-hexanol
CAS:
4048-33-3
MF:
C6H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Chloro-L-phenylalanine
CAS:
103616-89-3
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Gonadorelin acetate
CAS:
71447-49-9
MF:
C57H79N17O15
Structure:
Chemical Name:
METHYL CIS-1-BOC-4-HYDROXY-D-PROLINATE
CAS:
114676-69-6
MF:
C11H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-4-Chlorophenylglycine
CAS:
6212-33-5
MF:
C8H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl 3-amino-2-thiophenecarboxylate
CAS:
22288-78-4
MF:
C6H7NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(-)-Arginine hydrochloride
CAS:
627-75-8
MF:
C6H15ClN4O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-4-Fluorophe
CAS:
177966-64-2
MF:
C24H20FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-AMINO-3-BROMO-5-METHYLBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
13091-43-5
MF:
C8H8BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-5-PHENYL-PENTANOIC ACID
CAS:
218608-84-5
MF:
C16H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-2-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
267225-27-4
MF:
C9H10BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-Leucine
CAS:
35661-60-0
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-aspartic acid 4-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
1676-90-0
MF:
C13H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-4-Methylphe
CAS:
199006-54-7
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,5-Diiodo-L-tyrosine dihydrate
CAS:
300-39-0
MF:
C9H9I2NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-VALINE TERT-BUTYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
13518-40-6
MF:
C9H19NO2xHCl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N6-Cbz-L-Lysine benzyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
6366-70-7
MF:
C21H27ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-N-methyl-L-valine
CAS:
84000-11-3
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(2,4-DICHLORO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
269396-53-4
MF:
C15H19Cl2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID POTASSIUM SALT
CAS:
138-84-1
MF:
C7H6KNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride
CAS:
65365-28-8
MF:
C6H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cbz-beta-Amino-L-alanine
CAS:
35761-26-3
MF:
C11H14N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl N-benzoyl-L-tyrosinate
CAS:
3483-82-7
MF:
C18H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-CARBOBENZOXY-DL-METHIONINE
CAS:
4434-61-1
MF:
C13H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-L-methionine
CAS:
1152-62-1
MF:
C13H17NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-N-methyl-D-alanine
CAS:
19914-38-6
MF:
C9H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLOROACETYL-DL-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
7765-11-9
MF:
C11H12ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-1,2-propanediol
CAS:
616-30-8
MF:
C3H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Fmoc-Aspartic acid alpha-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
129460-09-9
MF:
C23H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-AMINO-1-BUTANOL
CAS:
96-20-8
MF:
C4H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(2-Pyridyl)-L-alanine
CAS:
37535-51-6
MF:
C8H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4-Fluorophenylalanine
CAS:
1132-68-9
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(+)-N-Boc-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid
CAS:
28697-17-8
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-L-valine
CAS:
96-81-1
MF:
C7H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Alanine tert-butyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
59531-86-1
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-NLE-OH DCHA
CAS:
21947-32-0
MF:
C23H44N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-IODO-L-TYROSINE
CAS:
70-78-0
MF:
C9H10INO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Methyl L-aspartate
CAS:
17812-32-7
MF:
C5H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-Lys(BOC)-OH
CAS:
92122-45-7
MF:
C26H32N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Alanyl-L-proline
CAS:
13485-59-1
MF:
C8H14N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
XYLENOL ORANGE
CAS:
1611-35-4
MF:
C31H32N2O13S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-homophenylalanine
CAS:
100564-78-1
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-D-VAL-OH
CAS:
17916-88-0
MF:
C7H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-2-Fluorophe
CAS:
114873-00-6
MF:
C14H18FNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Diethylaminoethanol
CAS:
100-37-8
MF:
C6H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Alloisoleucine
CAS:
1509-35-9
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
868-59-7
MF:
C5H12ClNO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl D-(-)-pyroglutamate
CAS:
68766-96-1
MF:
C7H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-1-hydroxyadamantane
CAS:
702-82-9
MF:
C10H17NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-D-Phenylalaninol
CAS:
106454-69-7
MF:
C14H21NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-D-Glutamic acid 5-benzyl ester
CAS:
35793-73-8
MF:
C17H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tricine
CAS:
5704-04-1
MF:
C6H13NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(2-Naphthyl)-L-alanine
CAS:
58438-03-2
MF:
C13H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-L-tyrosine
CAS:
71989-38-3
MF:
C28H29NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-DAB(ALOC)-OH
CAS:
204316-32-5
MF:
C23H24N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-Cbz-Phenylalaninol
CAS:
6372-14-1
MF:
C17H19NO3