Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N'-trityl-D-glutamine
CAS:
200623-62-7
MF:
C39H34N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-D-methionine
CAS:
1509-92-8
MF:
C7H13NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycyl-glycyl-L-valine
CAS:
20274-89-9
MF:
C9H17N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Methylphenyl-L-alanine
CAS:
80126-53-0
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-glutamine
CAS:
13726-85-7
MF:
C10H18N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
O-BENZYL-L-SERINE
CAS:
4726-96-9
MF:
C10H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
KN-62
CAS:
127191-97-3
MF:
C38H35N5O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N'-trityl-L-histidine
CAS:
109425-51-6
MF:
C40H33N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
beta-Alanine benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonate salt
CAS:
27019-47-2
MF:
C17H21NO5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-BROMO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270062-85-6
MF:
C15H20BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-3-Methylphe
CAS:
114873-06-2
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-ALA-OPFP
CAS:
86060-86-8
MF:
C24H16F5NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Glutamic acid di-tert-butyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
32677-01-3
MF:
C13H26ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ne-Boc-L-lysine tert-butyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
13288-57-8
MF:
C15H31ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYLAMINO-1-METHYL-1H-PYRROLE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID
CAS:
77716-11-1
MF:
C11H16N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Bicine
CAS:
150-25-4
MF:
C6H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(9-Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl)-N'-(2-chlorobenzyloxycarbonyl)-L-lysine
CAS:
133970-31-7
MF:
C29H29ClN2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-L-HOMOPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
132684-59-4
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-TERT-BUTYLMERCAPTO-L-CYSTEINE
CAS:
30044-51-0
MF:
C7H15NO2S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHG-OME HCL
CAS:
15028-39-4
MF:
C9H12ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Alanyl-D-alanine
CAS:
923-16-0
MF:
C6H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-3-METHYLPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
352351-64-5
MF:
C25H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-L-CYS(TRT)-NH2 HCL
CAS:
166737-85-5
MF:
C22H22N2OS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-LYS(Z)-OTBU HCL
CAS:
5978-22-3
MF:
C18H29ClN2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TriphenylMethyl chloride
CAS:
76-83-5
MF:
C19H15Cl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tert-Butyl L-valinate
CAS:
13211-31-9
MF:
C9H19NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-aspartic acid 4-benzyl ester
CAS:
7536-58-5
MF:
C16H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270065-74-2
MF:
C16H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-(+)-2-Amino-1-propanol
CAS:
2749-11-3
MF:
C3H9NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-[(S)-(+)-1-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl]-L-alanine
CAS:
82717-96-2
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-Amino-1,2-propanediol
CAS:
61278-21-5
MF:
C3H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Nitro-L-tyrosine
CAS:
621-44-3
MF:
C9H10N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-SER(BZL)-OSU
CAS:
13650-73-2
MF:
C19H24N2O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-2-methyl-3-phenylpropionic acid
CAS:
1132-26-9
MF:
C10H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Cysteine hydrochloride
CAS:
10318-18-0
MF:
C3H8ClNO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Isoserine
CAS:
565-71-9
MF:
C3H7NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-D-Alanine
CAS:
26607-51-2
MF:
C11H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L(+)-Homoarginine hydrochloride
CAS:
1483-01-8
MF:
C7H17ClN4O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-4-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
167479-78-9
MF:
C10H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-(tert-Butoxycarbonyloxyimino)-2-phenylacetonitrile
CAS:
58632-95-4
MF:
C13H14N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Glutamic acid 5-tert-butyl ester
CAS:
2419-56-9
MF:
C9H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Homo-L-tyrosine, Hydrobromide
CAS:
141899-12-9
MF:
C10H14BrNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-D-PHG-OH
CAS:
17609-52-8
MF:
C16H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-3-nitrobenzoic acid
CAS:
606-18-8
MF:
C7H6N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-LYS(FMOC)-OH
CAS:
78081-87-5
MF:
C36H34N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(4-NITRO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
219297-12-8
MF:
C15H20N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-1-Boc-piperidine
CAS:
87120-72-7
MF:
C10H20N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-(benzylphospho)-L-serine
CAS:
158171-14-3
MF:
C25H24NO8P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-ALPHA-AMINOPIMELIC ACID
CAS:
627-76-9
MF:
C7H13NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-2-Chlorophe
CAS:
80102-23-4
MF:
C14H18ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Aminobutanol
CAS:
5856-63-3
MF:
C4H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-phenylglycine
CAS:
102410-65-1
MF:
C23H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Diisopropanolamine
CAS:
110-97-4
MF:
C6H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid trisodium salt solution
CAS:
150-38-9
MF:
C10H13N2Na3O8·2H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Fmoc-N-Methyl-O-tert-butyl-L-threonine
CAS:
117106-20-4
MF:
C24H29NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Fmoc-(3-Pyridyl)alanine
CAS:
175453-07-3
MF:
C23H20N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-3-Methylphe
CAS:
114873-14-2
MF:
C15H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N,N'-Di-Boc-L-lysine hydroxysuccinimide ester
CAS:
30189-36-7
MF:
C20H33N3O8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-Cys(tBu)-OH
CAS:
67436-13-9
MF:
C22H25NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Chloro-D-phenylalanine
CAS:
80126-50-7
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Cbz-Hydroxy-L-proline
CAS:
13504-85-3
MF:
C13H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-aspartic acid
CAS:
119062-05-4
MF:
C19H17NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nalpha-Fmoc-Ndelta-trityl-L-glutamine
CAS:
132327-80-1
MF:
C39H34N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-2-TRIFLUOROMETHYLPHENYLALANINE
CAS:
352523-15-0
MF:
C25H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
6-Acetamidohexanoic acid
CAS:
57-08-9
MF:
C8H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-beta-Homoproline
CAS:
56502-01-3
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-N'-Fmoc-D-lysine
CAS:
115186-31-7
MF:
C26H32N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-tert-Butylamino-1,2-propanediol
CAS:
30315-46-9
MF:
C7H17NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(+)-α,α-Diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol
CAS:
112068-01-6
MF:
C17H19NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-ALLYL-L-CYSTEINE
CAS:
21593-77-1
MF:
C6H11NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Lysine hydrochloride
CAS:
657-27-2
MF:
C6H14N2O2.ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-4-Cyanophenylalanine
CAS:
263396-44-7
MF:
C10H10N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Biocytin
CAS:
576-19-2
MF:
C16H28N4O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-O-tert-butyl-L-threonine
CAS:
13734-40-2
MF:
C13H25NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Boc-3-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
82278-73-7
MF:
C14H18BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-N-Cbz-3-N-Boc-Amino-alanine
CAS:
16947-84-5
MF:
C16H22N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl L-serinate hydrochloride
CAS:
26348-61-8
MF:
C5H12ClNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid
CAS:
6384-92-5
MF:
C5H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Isoleucine tert-butyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
69320-89-4
MF:
C10H21NO2.HCl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl 2-amino-4,5-difluorobenzoate
CAS:
207346-42-7
MF:
C8H7F2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Aspartic acid 4-cyclohexyl ester
CAS:
112259-66-2
MF:
C10H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-DL-ASPARAGINE
CAS:
29880-22-6
MF:
C12H14N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-FLUORO-DL-TYROSINE
CAS:
403-90-7
MF:
C9H10FNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-IODO-D-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
62561-75-5
MF:
C9H10INO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-Lys(Dde)-OH
CAS:
150629-67-7
MF:
C31H36N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-GLU-OALL
CAS:
144120-54-7
MF:
C23H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-5-Hydroxytryptophan
CAS:
4350-09-8
MF:
C11H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-beta-homoisoleucine
CAS:
218608-82-3
MF:
C12H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Aminomethylbenzoic acid hydrochloride
CAS:
876-03-9
MF:
C8H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonylamino)-3-hydroxy-butanoic acid
CAS:
73731-37-0
MF:
C19H19NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Alarelin
CAS:
79561-22-1
MF:
C56H78N16O12
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-4-methoxybenzoic acid
CAS:
2840-26-8
MF:
C8H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)glycylglycine
CAS:
31972-52-8
MF:
C9H16N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-2-Methylproline
CAS:
42856-71-3
MF:
C6H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-2-FURYLALANINE DCHA SALT
CAS:
261380-18-1
MF:
C12H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Glycyl-L-leucine
CAS:
869-19-2
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(R)-3-AMINO-4-(1-NAPHTHYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
190190-49-9
MF:
C19H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-NLE-OH
CAS:
112883-41-7
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(+/-)-BENZYLOXYCARBONYL-ALPHA-PHOSPHONOGLYCINE TRIMETHYL ESTER
CAS:
88568-95-0
MF:
C13H18NO7P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-AMINO-2,3,5,6-TETRAFLUOROBENZOIC ACID
CAS:
944-43-4
MF:
C7H3F4NO2