Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino Acids and Derivatives

Arginine derivatives Asparagine derivatives Aspartic acid derivatives Cysteine derivatives Glutamine derivatives Glutamic acid derivatives Glycine derivative Histidine derivatives Isoleucine derivatives Leucine derivatives Lysine derivatives Methionine derivatives Phenylalanine derivatives Proline derivatives Serine derivatives Threonine derivatives Tryptophan derivatives Tyrosine derivatives Valine derivatives Alanine derivatives Methionine derivatives BOC-amino acid Cbz-amino acid FMOC-amino acid α-Amino acid Other Amino Acid Protection Amino alcohol derivative Amino acid salts Amino acid esters Other amino acid derivatives Natural amino acids and derivatives
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Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-MEPHE-OH DCHA
CAS:
40163-88-0
MF:
C27H44N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-L-Aspartic acid-1-benzyl ester
CAS:
86060-83-5
MF:
C26H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-PHE-OBZL P-TOSYLATE
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88224-00-4
MF:
C12H15NO2.C7H8O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-BETA-HOMOARGININE(TOS)
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136271-81-3
MF:
C19H30N4O6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-AMINO-3-(3-BROMO-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID
CAS:
275826-35-2
MF:
C9H10BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Boc-3-Methylaminopyrrolidine
CAS:
454712-26-6
MF:
C10H20N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-SER(TBU)-OH
CAS:
18822-58-7
MF:
C7H15NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-D-serine
CAS:
128107-47-1
MF:
C22H25NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-3-Amino-3-(4-bromophenyl)propionic acid
CAS:
275826-36-3
MF:
C9H10BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
19883-78-4
MF:
C9H10FNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-ACETYL-D-PHENYLALANINE
CAS:
10172-89-1
MF:
C11H13NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-D-3-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
205526-28-9
MF:
C25H20F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Phosphonous dichloride, (2-chloro-1,1-dimethylethyl)- (8CI,9CI)
CAS:
5819-04-5
MF:
C4H8Cl3P
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-Methionine
CAS:
2488-15-5
MF:
C10H19NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate
CAS:
96998-61-7
MF:
C3H10ClNO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-LYS(BOC)-OH
CAS:
2389-60-8
MF:
C19H28N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(1R,2R)-(-)-2-Amino-1-phenyl-1,3-propanediol
CAS:
46032-98-8
MF:
C9H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Nalpha-FMOC-L-Asparagine
CAS:
71989-16-7
MF:
C19H18N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycyl-L-glutamine monohydrate
CAS:
13115-71-4
MF:
C7H13N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous
CAS:
52-89-1
MF:
C3H8ClNO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
tert-Butyl carbamate
CAS:
4248-19-5
MF:
C5H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-DL-glutamic acid
CAS:
5817-08-3
MF:
C7H11NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-BOC-L-Arginine hydrochloride
CAS:
35897-34-8
MF:
C11H23ClN4O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-3-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
142995-31-1
MF:
C15H18F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-Arg(Tos)-OH
CAS:
61315-61-5
MF:
C18H28N4O6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl L-phenylalaninate hydrochloride
CAS:
7524-50-7
MF:
C10H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
5680-79-5
MF:
C3H8ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Histidine hydrochloride
CAS:
645-35-2
MF:
C6H10ClN3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCYL-L-ALANINE
CAS:
3695-73-6
MF:
C5H10N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-ASP(OTBU)-OSU
CAS:
3338-32-7
MF:
C20H24N2O8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-4-Boc-Piperazine-3-carboxylic acid
CAS:
278788-60-6
MF:
C10H18N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-NITRO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270062-88-9
MF:
C25H22N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Homophenylalanine hydrochloride
CAS:
105382-09-0
MF:
C10H14ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-L-Glutamic acid 5-benzylester
CAS:
13574-13-5
MF:
C17H23NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-D-isoleucine
CAS:
55721-65-8
MF:
C11H21NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-GLU(OTBU)-OH
CAS:
104719-63-3
MF:
C14H25NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Amino-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid
CAS:
328-68-7
MF:
C8H6F3NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-1-Boc-3-Aminopiperidine
CAS:
188111-79-7
MF:
C10H20N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-ASN-OME HCL
CAS:
57461-34-4
MF:
C5H11ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-(2-CYANOETHYL)GLYCINE
CAS:
3088-42-4
MF:
C5H8N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-Asp-OH
CAS:
13726-67-5
MF:
C9H15NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Glycyl-L-isoleucine
CAS:
19461-38-2
MF:
C8H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-D-Ile-OH
CAS:
143688-83-9
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-4-Trifluoromethylphe
CAS:
82317-83-7
MF:
C15H18F3NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-D-ARG(TOS)-OH
CAS:
4353-32-6
MF:
C13H20N4O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-3,4-Dichlorophe
CAS:
80741-39-5
MF:
C14H17Cl2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-tert-Leucine
CAS:
33105-81-6
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-PHE-OPFP
CAS:
86060-92-6
MF:
C30H20F5NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AC-BETA-ALA-OH
CAS:
3025-95-4
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-METHOXYETHYLAMINE
CAS:
109-85-3
MF:
C3H9NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-L-3,4-Difluorophe
CAS:
198474-90-7
MF:
C14H17F2NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(4-METHYL-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
270062-96-9
MF:
C16H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(-)-Isovaline
CAS:
3059-97-0
MF:
C5H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-M-TYROSINE
CAS:
587-33-7
MF:
C9H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-N-Boc-Aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
35264-09-6
MF:
C11H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-O-(2-bromo-Cbz)-L-Tyrosine
CAS:
47689-67-8
MF:
C22H24BrNO7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TRT-GLY-OH
CAS:
5893-05-0
MF:
C21H19NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Z-GLN(TRT)-OH
CAS:
132388-60-4
MF:
C32H30N2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-ASPARTIC ACID POTASSIUM SALT
CAS:
1115-63-5
MF:
C4H6KNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N,N-Dimethylglycine ethyl ester
CAS:
33229-89-9
MF:
C6H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Aminobenzoic acid
CAS:
99-05-8
MF:
C7H7NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-2-Aminobutyramide hydrochloride
CAS:
7682-20-4
MF:
C4H11ClN2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ademetionine disulfate tosylate
CAS:
97540-22-2
MF:
C22H34N6O16S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Leucinol
CAS:
53448-09-2
MF:
C6H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-AMINO-1-BUTANOL
CAS:
5856-62-2
MF:
C4H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-1-aminocyclobutanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
120728-10-1
MF:
C10H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
METHYL 2-AMINO-3-CARBOXYBENZOATE
CAS:
253120-47-7
MF:
C9H9NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glycylglycyl-L-leucine
CAS:
14857-82-0
MF:
C10H19N3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-GLU-OME
CAS:
72086-72-7
MF:
C11H19NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-N-Boc-3-Azetidinecarboxylic acid
CAS:
142253-55-2
MF:
C9H15NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-N-Methyl-L-alanine
CAS:
16948-16-6
MF:
C9H17NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boc-D-aspartic acid 4-benzyl ester
CAS:
51186-58-4
MF:
C16H21NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-Boc-3-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
CAS:
103365-47-5
MF:
C14H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Phthaloylglycine
CAS:
4702-13-0
MF:
C10H7NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-5-bromobenzoic acid
CAS:
5794-88-7
MF:
C7H6BrNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
cis-4-Aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid
CAS:
3685-23-2
MF:
C7H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-N-BOC-4-Bromophenylalanine
CAS:
62129-39-9
MF:
C14H18BrNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Fmoc-Hyp(tBu)-OH
CAS:
122996-47-8
MF:
C24H27NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-Trityl-L-cysteine
CAS:
2799-07-7
MF:
C22H21NO2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-3-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID
CAS:
541-48-0
MF:
C4H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Boc-4-oxo-L-proline
CAS:
84348-37-8
MF:
C10H15NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
H-THR(TBU)-OH
CAS:
4378-13-6
MF:
C8H17NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Ornithine 2-oxoglutarate
CAS:
5144-42-3
MF:
C10H18N2O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dimethyl L-cystinate dihydrochloride
CAS:
32854-09-4
MF:
C8H18Cl2N2O4S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-FORMYLGLYCINE ETHYL ESTER
CAS:
3154-51-6
MF:
C5H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-(+)-Glutamic acid hydrochloride
CAS:
138-15-8
MF:
C5H10ClNO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid
CAS:
7418-65-7
MF:
C6H6N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-ALANYL-DL-ALANINE
CAS:
2867-20-1
MF:
C6H12N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-beta-Homoisoleucine hydrochloride
CAS:
219310-10-8
MF:
C7H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(+)-2-Chlorophenylglycine methyl ester
CAS:
141109-14-0
MF:
C9H10ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L(+)-Lysine monohydrate
CAS:
39665-12-8
MF:
C6H16N2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-D-GLU-OH
CAS:
34404-28-9
MF:
C10H17NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BOC-SER(ME)-OH
CAS:
51293-47-1
MF:
C9H17NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Amino-3-[(4-methoxybenzyl)thio]propanoic acid
CAS:
2544-31-2
MF:
C11H15NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FMOC-NLE-OH
CAS:
77284-32-3
MF:
C21H23NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Arginine L-aspartate
CAS:
7675-83-4
MF:
C10H21N5O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Chloro-D-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride
CAS:
33965-47-8
MF:
C10H13Cl2NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Aspartic acid
CAS:
617-45-8
MF:
C4H7NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
9-Fluorenylmethyl chloroformate
CAS:
28920-43-6
MF:
C15H11ClO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CHLOROACETYL-L-TRYPTOPHAN
CAS:
64709-57-5
MF:
C13H13ClN2O3