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Monosaccharide

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Monosaccharide is the polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone comprising 3 to 7 carbon atoms in combination with hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The simplest monosaccharide is triose monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. With the number increase of carbon atoms , there are tetrose, pentose and hexose and the like. The most important pentose in human body is ribose and deoxyribose, which form the RNA and DNA. The three most important monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose, of which C6H12O6 is the common chemical formula. Monosaccharide structure has aldehyde or ketone group: glucose and galactose contain aldehyde group, and fructose contains ketone group. Due to the existence of aldehyde and ketone group, monosaccharide has reducibility and can be used to check whether there is urine or blood sugar. Monosaccharide contains multiple hydroxyl groups and can be used for esterification, glycosidation, deoxygenation, dehydration and amination reaction. Monosaccharide is the basic unit of many sugars, and the carbohydrate foods can be digested into monosaccharides, which are absorbed in the small intestine. Different monosaccharides have different absorption rates: 100 of glucose, 110 of galactose, 43 of fructose, 19 of mannose, 15 of xylulose, 9 of arabinose.

Monosaccharides are the basic components of marine life and carbohydrates in sea water and marine sediments. The major monosaccharides in marine plankton include (as usual abundance in the order listed) galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose and arabinose. The present forms of sugars in vivo are mainly polysaccharide and combined sugar. These monosaccharides can also be commonly found in seawater and sediments. Fructose lacks a big biological source in the ocean, but can be converted from glucose by epimerization in seawater.

The concentration range of individual monosaccharides in seawater is 0-20 μg/ L, and 10 mg carbon / L generally represents the total concentration of free monosaccharides. The total free monosaccharide content in seawater can be measured by the method of METH. The glucose content can be directly measured via enzymatic reaction or bioassay. The simultaneous determination of all individual monosaccharides in seawater sample are commonly carried out through chromatography. Since monosaccharide is non-volatile compounds, it must be processed via derivatization when used for gas chromatography, in which the same monosaccharide appears in different forms of anomer and gives complex  peaks. Liquid chromatography have more applications, such as the ethanol / water partition chromatography on anion exchange resin and the ion exchange chromatography in which boric acid complexes formed on the borate anion exchange resin.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(+)-GLUCOSE MONOHYDRATE
CAS:
14431-43-7
MF:
C6H14O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,3,4,6-TETRA-O-BENZYL-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE
CAS:
6564-72-3
MF:
C34H36O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Deoxy-D-glucose
CAS:
154-17-6
MF:
C6H12O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine
CAS:
7512-17-6
MF:
C8H15NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Uridine
CAS:
58-96-8
MF:
C9H12N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Mannose
CAS:
3458-28-4
MF:
C6H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
β-D-Glucose pentaacetate
CAS:
604-69-3
MF:
C16H22O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Galactose
CAS:
59-23-4
MF:
C6H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
CAS:
369-07-3
MF:
C12H15NO8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Ribose
CAS:
50-69-1
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-FUCOSE
CAS:
2438-80-4
MF:
C6H12O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Saccharin
CAS:
81-07-2
MF:
C7H5NO3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside
CAS:
367-93-1
MF:
C9H18O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(-)-Salicin
CAS:
138-52-3
MF:
C13H18O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2:5,6-Bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-D-mannitol
CAS:
1707-77-3
MF:
C12H22O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Fructose-1,6-diphoshate calcium salt
CAS:
103213-33-8
MF:
C6H16CaO12P2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FERROUS GLUCONATE DIHYDRATE
CAS:
12389-15-0
MF:
C12H26FeO16
Structure:
Chemical Name:
beta-D-Ribofuranose 1-acetate 2,3,5-tribenzoate
CAS:
6974-32-9
MF:
C28H24O9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Threonic acid calcium salt
CAS:
70753-61-6
MF:
C8H14CaO10
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Diacetone-D-glucose
CAS:
582-52-5
MF:
C12H20O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal
CAS:
2873-29-2
MF:
C12H16O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
CAS:
29836-26-8
MF:
C14H28O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
beta-D-(-)-Arabinose
CAS:
10323-20-3
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(+)-Glucono-1,5-lactone
CAS:
90-80-2
MF:
C6H10O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
beta-D-Ribofuranose 1,2,3,5-tetraacetate
CAS:
13035-61-5
MF:
C13H18O9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
CAS:
3150-24-1
MF:
C12H15NO8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Mannitol
CAS:
87-78-5
MF:
C6H14O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Deoxy-D-ribose
CAS:
533-67-5
MF:
C5H10O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-TAGATOSE
CAS:
87-81-0
MF:
C6H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Galactal
CAS:
21193-75-9
MF:
C6H10O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythro-pentafuranous-1-ulose-3,5-dibenzoate
CAS:
122111-01-7
MF:
C19H14F2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2,3-Triacetyl-5-deoxy-D-ribose
CAS:
62211-93-2
MF:
C11H16O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(-)-Fructose
CAS:
57-48-7
MF:
C6H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Erythritol
CAS:
149-32-6
MF:
C4H10O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Dithiothreitol
CAS:
3483-12-3
MF:
C4H10O2S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
alpha-D-Methylglucoside
CAS:
97-30-3
MF:
C7H14O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Arbutin
CAS:
497-76-7
MF:
C12H16O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Deoxy-L-ribose
CAS:
18546-37-7
MF:
C5H10O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Acetylneuraminic acid
CAS:
131-48-6
MF:
C11H19NO9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,3,5-Tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose
CAS:
22224-41-5
MF:
C26H22O8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L(+)-Arabinose
CAS:
87-72-9
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Glucal
CAS:
13265-84-4
MF:
C6H10O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(+)-Xylose
CAS:
58-86-6
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate
CAS:
4163-60-4
MF:
C16H22O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-ARABINOSE
CAS:
5328-37-0
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Esculin
CAS:
531-75-9
MF:
C15H16O9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ribose
CAS:
24259-59-4
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyluracil
CAS:
3083-77-0
MF:
C9H12N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide
CAS:
572-09-8
MF:
C14H19BrO9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-DEOXY-1-(OCTYLAMINO)-D-GLUCITOL
CAS:
23323-37-7
MF:
C14H31NO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D(+)-Galactosamine hydrochloride
CAS:
1772-03-8
MF:
C6H14ClNO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-NITROPHENYL-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE
CAS:
2492-87-7
MF:
C12H15NO8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Glucurone
CAS:
32449-92-6
MF:
C6H8O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Glucose pentaacetate
CAS:
604-68-2
MF:
C16H22O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2-O-Isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose
CAS:
18549-40-1
MF:
C9H16O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-XYLOSE
CAS:
609-06-3
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Isorhamnetin
CAS:
480-19-3
MF:
C16H12O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2:5,6-Di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-allofuranose
CAS:
2595-05-3
MF:
C12H20O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-(-)-SORBOSE
CAS:
87-79-6
MF:
C6H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dithioerythritol
CAS:
6892-68-8
MF:
C4H10O2S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,6-ANHYDRO-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE
CAS:
498-07-7
MF:
C6H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Gluconic acid
CAS:
526-95-4
MF:
C6H12O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L(+)-Rhamnose monohydrate
CAS:
10030-85-0
MF:
C6H14O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
MUCIC ACID
CAS:
526-99-8
MF:
C6H10O8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Gluconic acid, .gamma.-lactone
CAS:
1198-69-2
MF:
C6H10O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Diacetonefructose
CAS:
20880-92-6
MF:
C12H20O6
Chemical Name:
Arbutin
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,4,6-Tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal
CAS:
4098-06-0
MF:
C12H16O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-C-Methyl-D-ribono-1,4-lactone
CAS:
492-30-8
MF:
C6H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose
CAS:
97614-43-2
MF:
C26H21FO7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone acetonide
CAS:
20513-98-8
MF:
C9H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2:3,4-Di-O-isopropylidene-D-galactopyranose
CAS:
4064-06-6
MF:
C12H20O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2:3,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-xylofuranose
CAS:
20881-04-3
MF:
C11H18O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
METHYL 1,2,3,4-TETRA-O-ACETYL-BETA-D-GLUCURONATE
CAS:
7355-18-2
MF:
C15H20O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cynaroside
CAS:
5373-11-5
MF:
C21H20O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Copper(II) gluconate
CAS:
527-09-3
MF:
C12H22CuO14
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-BROMO-4-CHLORO-3-INDOLYL B-D-
CAS:
114162-64-0
MF:
C14H13BrClNO7.C6H13N
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,4-DI-O-ACETYL-6-DEOXY-L-GLUCAL
CAS:
34819-86-8
MF:
C10H14O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(+)-2,3-O-Isopropylidene-L-threitol
CAS:
50622-09-8
MF:
C7H14O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DL-Arabinose
CAS:
147-81-9
MF:
C5H10O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,4,6-Tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal
CAS:
55628-54-1
MF:
C27H28O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
METHYL-BETA-D-GALACTOPYRANOSIDE
CAS:
1824-94-8
MF:
C7H14O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid sodium salt
CAS:
160369-85-7
MF:
C19H21BrClN2O9.Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(+)-SORBOSE
CAS:
3615-56-3
MF:
C6H12O6
Chemical Name:
MANNAN
CAS:
51395-96-1
Structure:
Chemical Name:
FERROUS GLUCONATE DIHYDRATE
CAS:
22830-45-1
MF:
C12H26FeO16
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Isomannide
CAS:
641-74-7
MF:
C6H10O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(+)-ALLOSE
CAS:
2595-97-3
MF:
C6H12O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-NITROPHENYL-ALPHA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE
CAS:
3767-28-0
MF:
C12H15NO8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,3,5-TRI-O-BENZYL-BETA-D-ARABINOFURANOSE
CAS:
60933-68-8
MF:
C26H28O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2-O-Isopropylidene-alpha-D-xylofuranose
CAS:
20031-21-4
MF:
C8H14O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-(+)-FUCOSE
CAS:
3615-37-0
MF:
C6H12O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2,3,4,6-PENTA-O-GALLOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE
CAS:
14937-32-7
MF:
C41H32O26
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,3,4,6-TETRA-O-ACETYL-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYL ISOTHIOCYANATE
CAS:
14152-97-7
MF:
C15H19NO9S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CALCIUM D-ARABONATE
CAS:
22373-09-7
MF:
C10H18CaO12
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl beta-D-ribofuranoside
CAS:
7473-45-2
MF:
C6H12O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Diaceton-alpha-D-mannofuranose
CAS:
14131-84-1
MF:
C12H20O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-NITROPHENYL-ALPHA-D-GALACTOPYRANOSIDE
CAS:
7493-95-0
MF:
C12H15NO8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
D-Glucosamic acid
CAS:
3646-68-2
MF:
C6H13NO6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TATM
CAS:
92051-23-5
MF:
C15H19F3O12S