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Cephalosporins Drugs

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Cephalosporins refer to a class of antibiotics using the natural cephalosporin C secreted by the cephalosporin coronary culture as raw materials. It is manufactured through semi-synthetic modification of the side chain of cephalosporin C, also belonging to β-lactam antibiotics. It is a family of broad-spectrum semi-synthetic bactericidal antibiotics. According to their different ages and different antimicrobial activity, they can be divided into first, second, third generations, including cephalosporin Ⅰ-Ⅷ, cefathiamidine, cefamandole, cefadroxil, ceftizoxime and cephamycin derivatives and moxalactam.

Antimicrobial spectrum
(1) First generation cephalosporins mainly have effects on β-hemolytic streptococci and other streptococci, staphylococci (including enzyme production strains), Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella and Shigella bacteria. This class of antibiotics has relative weak resistance against the β-lactamase produced by the gram-negative bacteria. Therefore it is easier for Gram-negative bacteria to develop resistance.

(2) Second-generation cephalosporins have comparable or slightly lower antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria compared to the first generation of antimicrobial activity similar to or slightly lower than the first generation, while having excellent effects in inhibiting the Gram-negative bacteria, as follows:
① Strong anti-enzyme capability: some Gram-negative bacteria (such as E. coli) are easy to become resistant against the first-generation cephalosporin with the second generation often being effective;
② Broad antimicrobial spectrum, the second generation has a broader antimicrobial spectrum against the first generation antibacterial spectrum with certain antibacterial activity against Neisseria, a part of indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae.

(3) The effectiveness of third-generation cephalosporins in killing gram-positive bacteria are generally lower than the first generation while their effect against gram-negative bacteria is better than the second generation. The third generation cephalosporin has broader antibacterial spectrum and stronger resistance to the enzyme.

Toxic side effect
(1) Allergic reaction: it can cause skin rashes, asthma, angioedema, anaphylactic shock and so on. The anaphylactic shock of cephalosporins is similar to penicillin. These two types of drugs have varying degrees of cross-allergic reactions. In general, 10% to 30% of those who are allergic to penicillin are also allergic to the cephalosporin while the vast majority of cephalosporin-sensitive patients are also allergic to penicillin.

(2) Gastrointestinal reactions and dysbacteriosis: cephalosporins can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and other reactions. Second-generation and third-generation cephalosporins can strongly inhibit the intestinal flora, being able to lead to dysbacteriosis, even superinfection in severe cases.

(3) Liver toxicity: Most kinds of cephalosporins, when used in large dose, can cause elevated level of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and so on.

(4) Renal toxicity: Most kinds of cephalosporins can be excreted by the kidneys, and even can lead to elevated blood urea nitrogen level, oliguria and proteinuria. Its combination with furosemide and aminoglycoside antibiotics will lead to increased kidney damage.

(5) Coagulation disorders: cephalosporins can inhibit the intestinal flora to produce vitamin K, and therefore can potentially cause bleeding effect.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
(Z)-2-Amino-alpha-[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)]-1-methylethoxyimino-4-thiazolacetic acid
CAS:
86299-47-0
MF:
C13H19N3O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TAEM
CAS:
158183-05-2
MF:
C20H22N4O4S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Mercaptobenzothiazolyl-(Z)-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) isopropoxyiminoacetate
CAS:
89604-92-2
MF:
C20H22N4O4S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Amino-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid
CAS:
36923-17-8
MF:
C7H8N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftriaxone sodium
CAS:
104376-79-6
MF:
C18H16N8Na2O7S3.31/2H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftiofur
CAS:
80370-57-6
MF:
C19H17N5O7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefeprime dihydrochloride
CAS:
107648-80-6
MF:
C19H25ClN6O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefoselis sulfate
CAS:
122841-12-7
MF:
C19H24N8O10S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cemandil sodium salt
CAS:
42540-40-9
MF:
C19H17N6NaO6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftiofur hydrochloride
CAS:
103980-44-5
MF:
C19H18ClN5O7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester monohydrochloride
CAS:
79349-67-0
MF:
C22H21ClN2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GCLH
CAS:
64308-63-0
MF:
C29H25ClN2O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftiofur sodium
CAS:
104010-37-9
MF:
C19H18N5NaO7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tilmicosin
CAS:
108050-54-0
MF:
C46H80N2O13
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CEFATHIAMIDINE
CAS:
33075-00-2
MF:
C19H28N4O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid
CAS:
53994-69-7
MF:
C7H7ClN2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid
CAS:
957-68-6
MF:
C10H12N2O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefodizime sodium
CAS:
86329-79-5
MF:
C20H18N6Na2O7S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cephalexin
CAS:
15686-71-2
MF:
C16H17N3O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefuroxime sodium
CAS:
56238-63-2
MF:
C16H15N4O8S.Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-ACT
CAS:
131257-07-3
MF:
C12H13N5O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride
CAS:
147816-24-8
MF:
C23H29N5O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefoselis
CAS:
122841-10-5
MF:
C19H22N8O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-[2-[[(Phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-thiazolyl]-2-pentenedioic acid 5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) ester
CAS:
115065-79-7
MF:
C21H22N2O6S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefotaxime sodium
CAS:
64485-93-4
MF:
C16H16N5NaO7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
S-2-BENZOTHIAZOLYL (Z)-2-(5-AMINO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOL-3-YL)-2-METHOXYIMINO THIOACETATE
CAS:
104797-47-9
MF:
C14H10N4O3S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefpirome
CAS:
84957-29-9
MF:
C22H22N6O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
APRAMYCIN
CAS:
37321-09-8
MF:
C21H41N5O11
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefquinome sulfate
CAS:
118443-89-3
MF:
C23H26N6O9S3
Chemical Name:
(Z)-2-(TERT-METHOXYCARBONYLMETHOXYIMINO)-2-(2-AMINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)ACETIC ACID
MF:
C11H15N3O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-ACMA
CAS:
79349-53-4
MF:
C21H20Cl2N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sodium cefamandole
CAS:
30034-03-8
MF:
C18H17N6NaO5S2
Chemical Name:
Cefozopran hydrochloride
CAS:
113981-44-5
MF:
C19H17N9O5S2.HCl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CEPHALEXIN MONOHYDRATE
CAS:
23325-78-2
MF:
C16H17N3O4S.H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefadroxil
CAS:
66592-87-8
MF:
C16H17N3O5S.H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefixime
CAS:
79350-37-1
MF:
C16H15N5O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Latamoxef sodium
CAS:
64953-12-4
MF:
C20H18N6Na2O9S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(6R,7R)-7-Amino-8-oxo-3-(1-propenyl)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
CAS:
120709-09-3
MF:
C10H12N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CEFOTAXIME
MF:
C16H17N5O7S2
Chemical Name:
PENICILLINASE
CAS:
9012-26-4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
ACECLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
CAS:
6109-70-2
MF:
C9H16ClNO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefotiam hydrochloride
CAS:
66309-69-1
MF:
C18H23N9O4S3.HCl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefoxitin sodium
CAS:
33564-30-6
MF:
C16H16N3NaO7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftibuten dihydrate
CAS:
118081-34-8
MF:
C15H14N4O6S2.2H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid
CAS:
26395-99-3
MF:
C8H10N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefditoren pivoxil
CAS:
117467-28-4
MF:
C25H28N6O7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefazolin sodium salt
CAS:
27164-46-1
MF:
C14H13N8NaO4S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefdinir
CAS:
91832-40-5
MF:
C14H13N5O5S2
Chemical Name:
Unii-p9vxv1408y
CAS:
866021-48-9
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefmetazole
CAS:
56796-20-4
MF:
C15H17N7O5S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefpirome sulfate
CAS:
98753-19-6
MF:
C22H24N6O9S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefaclor
CAS:
53994-73-3
MF:
C15H14ClN3O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefoxitin
CAS:
35607-66-0
MF:
C16H17N3O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftiolene
CAS:
77360-52-2
MF:
C20H18N8O8S3
Chemical Name:
Tilmicosin phosphate
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefetamet hydrochloride
CAS:
65052-63-3
MF:
C14H15N5O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Flomoxef
CAS:
99665-00-6
MF:
C15H18F2N6O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefetamet pivoxyl
CAS:
65243-33-6
MF:
C20H25N5O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefuroxime 1-acetoxyethyl ester
CAS:
64544-07-6
MF:
C20H22N4O10S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
SCE 2174
CAS:
95789-30-3
MF:
C27H37N9O7S3.2ClH
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefotetan
CAS:
69712-56-7
MF:
C17H17N7O8S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftezole sodium
CAS:
41136-22-5
MF:
C13H11N8NaO4S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftizoxime
CAS:
68401-81-0
MF:
C13H13N5O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftizoxime alapivoxil
CAS:
135821-54-4
MF:
C22H28N6O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftriaxone sodium
CAS:
74578-69-1
MF:
C18H18N8O7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefditoren Acid Sodium Salt
CAS:
104146-53-4
MF:
C19H18N6NaO5S3+
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-MERCAPTO-2-METHYL-5-OXO-6-HYDROXY-1,2,4-TRIAZINE
MF:
C4H5N3O2S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefradine
CAS:
38821-53-3
MF:
C16H19N3O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefatrizine
CAS:
51627-14-6
MF:
C18H18N6O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(Z)-2-(5-AMINO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOL-3-YL)-2-METHOXYIMINO ACETIC ACID
CAS:
68786-47-0
MF:
C43H33N3O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftazidime
CAS:
78439-06-2
MF:
C22H32N6O12S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefpiramide sodium
CAS:
74849-93-7
MF:
C25H23N8NaO7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefprozil
CAS:
92665-29-7
MF:
C18H19N3O5S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefoperazone
CAS:
62893-19-0
MF:
C25H27N9O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cephalonium
CAS:
5575-21-3
MF:
C20H18N4O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefpodoxime proxetil
CAS:
87239-81-4
MF:
C21H27N5O9S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefpiramide acid
CAS:
70797-11-4
MF:
C25H24N8O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefteram pivoxil
CAS:
82547-58-8
MF:
C16H17N9O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefoperazone sodium
CAS:
62893-20-3
MF:
C25H26N9NaO8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Amino-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester
CAS:
36923-21-4
MF:
C20H18N2O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Hydroxymethyl-7-Aminocephalosporanic acid
CAS:
15690-38-7
MF:
C8H10N2O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CEFATRIZINE PROPYLENE GLYCOL
CAS:
64217-62-5
MF:
C21H26N6O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefodizime
CAS:
69739-16-8
MF:
C20H20N6O7S4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefotaxime
CAS:
63527-52-6
MF:
C16H17N5O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefepime sulfate
CAS:
107648-78-2
MF:
C19H25N6O5S2.HO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefbuperazone sodium
CAS:
76648-01-6
MF:
C22H28N9NaO9S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CeftazidiMe
CAS:
72558-82-8
MF:
C22H22N6O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftibuten
CAS:
97519-39-6
MF:
C15H14N4O6S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
LF163892 MONOHYDRATE
CAS:
76470-66-1
MF:
C16H16ClN3O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefotiam
CAS:
61622-34-2
MF:
C18H23N9O4S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride
CAS:
111696-23-2
MF:
C20H26ClN5O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ceftizoxime sodium
CAS:
68401-82-1
MF:
C13H12N5O5S2.Na
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Latamoxef
CAS:
64952-97-2
MF:
C20H20N6O9S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefuroxime
CAS:
55268-75-2
MF:
C16H16N4O8S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefmenoxime hydrochloride
CAS:
75738-58-8
MF:
C32H35ClN18O10S6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefmenoxime
CAS:
65085-01-0
MF:
C16H17N9O5S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cefepime hydrochloride
CAS:
123171-59-5
MF:
C19H24N6O5S2.2ClH.H2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-AMCA
CAS:
24701-69-7
MF:
C9H12N2O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CEFTRIAXONE
CAS:
73384-59-5
MF:
C18H18N8O7S3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CEFMINOX SODIUM
CAS:
92636-39-0
MF:
C16H20N7NaO7S3