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Analytical Chemistry

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Analytical chemistry is the subject for the method and basic principle of studying and identifying of the composition, status, structure of matter as well as determination of related content. It is an important branch of chemistry subject. Analytical chemistry plays an important role in not only its own development but also in various fields related to the chemistry. We can say that all the practice of any human activity involving chemical phenomena is inseparable from analytical chemistry. Now, people have developed various kinds of different analytical methods, which can be classified based on an analysis task, analysis object, the basis of the analysis, requirement of the analysis and sample dosage.

According to the analysis tasks, it can be divided into qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis and structural analysis. Task of qualitative analysis is to identify the elements, radicals, functional groups or compounds that constituting the substances; the task of the quantitative analysis is to determine the content of the related components in the sample; the task of structural analysis is to study the molecular structure or crystal structure of the material.

(1) According to the analysis objects, it can be divided into organic and inorganic analysis; the object for the inorganic analysis is inorganic substance; the object of organic analysis is organic substance. In the inorganic analysis, it is generally required to determine what elements, ions, radicals or compounds that constitutes the sample and measure the percentage of each component; and sometimes it is also necessary for determination of the crystal structure; in the organic analysis, it not only requires the identification of the constituent elements, but also, more importantly, should do the structure analysis and functional group analysis.
(2) According to whether the analysis is based on the physical properties or chemical properties of the substance, it can be divided into instrumental analysis and chemical analysis. Depending on the specific requirements, it can be divided into routine analysis, rapid analysis and arbitration Analysis. Routine analysis refers to the general daily laboratory production analysis, also known as conventional analysis; rapid analysis is a kind of routine analysis and is mainly applied to the control of the production process, demanding the report of the results in the shortest possible time with the error generally being allowed to be greater; arbitration analysis is needed when there is controversy in the analysis results from different institute, demanding related department to conduct accurate analysis using specific method in order to determine the accuracy of the results of the original analysis.
(3) According to the amount of the sample, it can be generally divided into constant (> 0.1g), semi-micro (0.01 ~ 0.1g) and trace (1 ~ 10mg) analysis.
(4) In the inorganic qualitative chemical analysis, people generally apply semi-micro method while people generally apply constant analysis in the quantitative chemical analysis. According to the relative amounts of the analyzed components contained in the sample, it is also roughly divided into constant component analysis (> 1%), minor component analysis (0.01 to 1%) and trace components analysis (<0.01%). For the analysis of some trace amount of components contained in some kinds of complicated mixture and some substances, it is necessary to perform separation and enrichment. This produces a series of separation techniques, such as extraction, distillation, ion exchange, chromatography, sedimentation and flotation separation, these chemical separation techniques are an integral part of the analysis.

Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Environmental Analytical Chemistry is briefly referred to environmental analysis. It is a kind of subject to study the types, components of pollutants in the environment as well as how to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis on the chemical contaminants in the environment. It is a branch of environmental chemistry.

Environmental analytical chemistry emerged, developed and improved during the process of solving environmental problems. In 1950s, the public nuisance disease occurred in Japan had alerted the whole world. In order to find the cause of public nuisance disease, after experiencing as long as 11 years, later, the chemists of environmental analysis had applied light spectrum and identified that the river in Itai-itai disease area contained harmful elements such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and so on. Further by means of tracking element analysis of the soil and food in the disease area, people had found high lead and cadmium content. Later, people had further conducted spectral quantitative analysis on the body and bone of the patients in the disease area and found that the bone ashes contained alarmingly high content of zinc, lead and cadmium. To determine the causative agent, people further incorporated zinc, lead and cadmium into the food for feeding animals and conduct trace elemental analysis for animals and confirmed the serious harm of cadmium on the bone, revealing the cause of the Itai-itai disease. The development of modern science, especially the development of modern chemistry, physics, mathematics, electronics, biology, as well as the emergence of accurate, reliable, sensitive, selective, rapid, simple environmental pollution analysis technology and automation equipment, has been resulting in the maturation of environmental analytical chemistry. Environmental analytical chemistry now has penetrated into all areas of the entire environmental science subject. It is the most effective means of access to environmental information quality.
The objects of the environmental analytical chemistry research are quite complicated, including air, water, soil, sediment, minerals, waste, animals, plants, food, and human tissue. The content of chemical elements or compound to be determined in the environmental analytic chemistry is very low, with the absolute content being within the level of 10-6 to 10-12 grams.


The analysis technology in the environmental analytical chemistry is developing towards the direction of continuous automation, computerization and joint combination of various methods and instruments. Currently applied automatic analysis methods include colorimetric analysis, ion selective electrode, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, polarography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis. Laser, as the light source of analytical chemistry technique, has also been applied. Since the laser analysis has properties of high resolution, high sensitivity, long-range and short-term, the laser technology will play a pivotal role in the development of environmental analytical chemistry.

With the deepened development of environmental science, environmental analytical chemistry is often demanded for trace levels and ultra-trace-level detection and analysis, therefore, high sensitivity. Thus study of analysis methods of high sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid trace and ultra trace will become the major development direction for environmental analysis in the near future.

Qualitative Analysis of Chemistry
Qualitative analytic chemistry is the subject to identify the chemical elements and atoms groups contained in the sample. It is a branch subject of the analysis chemistry. Its purpose is to ascertain the chemical composition of the research object (specimen).
The major research content of the qualitative analytic chemistry includes:

1 the tested samples were analyzed separately. Namely take part of the sample and use exclusive reaction to detect a desire detection component.
2 systematic analysis of the samples. This means successively apply a few selective reactions for gradual separation of the ions followed by separation of each group until separating to only one substance and finally apply confirming reaction to ascertain the existence of this substance. The most famous cation system analysis method is H2S system. In recent years, due to the use of advanced equipment, qualitative analysis has also rapidly developed together with multivariate analysis and has also become an important direction for analytical chemistry.

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Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methyl ethanesulfonate
CAS:
1912-28-3
MF:
C3H8O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sodium cacodylate trihydrate
CAS:
6131-99-3
MF:
C2H12AsNaO5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ethyl indole-3-carboxylate
CAS:
776-41-0
MF:
C11H11NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dimethyl dodecanedioate
CAS:
1731-79-9
MF:
C14H26O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Canrenone
CAS:
976-71-6
MF:
C22H28O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Methyl-2-hexanamine hydrochloride
CAS:
13803-74-2
MF:
C7H18ClN
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Methylisothiazolinone
CAS:
2682-20-4
MF:
C4H5NOS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sulfosulfuron
CAS:
141776-32-1
MF:
C16H18N6O7S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(+/-)-2-(6-METHOXY-2-NAPHTHYL)PROPIONIC ACID
CAS:
23981-80-8
MF:
C14H14O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dehydroepiandrosterone acetate
CAS:
853-23-6
MF:
C21H30O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Amino-5-chloro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
CAS:
30536-19-7
MF:
C6H4ClN3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Methylflavone-8-carboxylic acid
CAS:
3468-01-7
MF:
C17H12O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Cabergoline
CAS:
81409-90-7
MF:
C26H37N5O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Oxyclozanide
CAS:
2277-92-1
MF:
C13H6Cl5NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Amino-N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2,4,6-triiodo-1,3-benzenedicarboxamide
CAS:
76801-93-9
MF:
C14H18I3N3O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate
CAS:
79060-88-1
MF:
C32H12BF24Na
Chemical Name:
Molecular sieve 3A
CAS:
308080-99-1
MF:
KnNa12-n[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12]xH2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Desoximetasone
CAS:
382-67-2
MF:
C22H29FO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(-)-Camphanic acid chloride
CAS:
39637-74-6
MF:
C10H13ClO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
DEVARDA'S ALLOY
CAS:
8049-11-4
MF:
AlCuZn
Structure:
Chemical Name:
BISPYRAZOLONE
CAS:
7477-67-0
MF:
C20H18N4O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Calcium ascorbate dihydrate
CAS:
5743-28-2
MF:
C12H18CaO14
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Neocuproine
CAS:
484-11-7
MF:
C14H12N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Imidocarb dipropionate
CAS:
55750-06-6
MF:
C25H32N6O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Chloramphenicol palmitate
CAS:
530-43-8
MF:
C27H42Cl2N2O6
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Phenylephrine
CAS:
59-42-7
MF:
C9H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(-)-4-Amino-2-hydroxybutyric acid
CAS:
40371-51-5
MF:
C4H9NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Phenyltetrazole-5-thiol
CAS:
86-93-1
MF:
C7H6N4S
Chemical Name:
Human serum albumin
CAS:
70024-90-7
MF:
NULL
Structure:
Chemical Name:
TETRODOTOXIN
CAS:
4368-28-9
MF:
C11H17N3O8
Structure:
Chemical Name:
CORTEXOLONE
CAS:
152-58-9
MF:
C21H30O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Paricalcitol
CAS:
131918-61-1
MF:
C27H44O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
9-Oxo-10(9H)-acridineacetic acid
CAS:
38609-97-1
MF:
C15H11NO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2',7'-DICHLOROFLUORESCEIN
CAS:
76-54-0
MF:
C20H10Cl2O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(+)-DIACETYL-L-TARTARIC ANHYDRIDE
CAS:
6283-74-5
MF:
C8H8O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
AMMELIDE
CAS:
645-93-2
MF:
C3H4N4O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Methyl-1H-benzotriazole
CAS:
136-85-6
MF:
C7H7N3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2',6'-Pipecoloxylidide
CAS:
15883-20-2
MF:
C14H20N2O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
PALLADIUM ON STRONTIUM CARBONATE, REDUCED
MF:
C2H2O6PdSr
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Boron trifluoride-methanol solution
CAS:
373-57-9
MF:
CH4BF3O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Distearyl thiodipropionate
CAS:
693-36-7
MF:
C42H82O4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Giemsa stain
CAS:
51811-82-6
MF:
C14Cl1H14N3S1
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-PIPERIDYLMETHYLAMINE
CAS:
22990-77-8
MF:
C6H14N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Difluoromethoxy-2-{[(3,4-dimethoxy-2-pyridinyl)methyl]thio}-1H-benzimidazole
CAS:
102625-64-9
MF:
C16H15F2N3O3S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Ethyl tryptophol
CAS:
41340-36-7
MF:
C12H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
P-Toluenesulfonic anhydride
CAS:
4124-41-8
MF:
C14H14O5S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Octylamine
CAS:
111-86-4
MF:
C8H19N
Structure:
Chemical Name:
RHODAMINE B ISOTHIOCYANATE
CAS:
36877-69-7
MF:
C29H30N3O3S.Cl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Starane
CAS:
81406-37-3
MF:
C15H21Cl2FN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Chlorophenothiazine
CAS:
92-39-7
MF:
C12H8ClNS
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-(2-Chloro-6-fluorophenyl)-5-methylisoxazole-4-carboxylic acid
CAS:
3919-74-2
MF:
C11H7ClFNO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene
CAS:
634-90-2
MF:
C6H2Cl4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride
CAS:
20325-40-0
MF:
C14H18Cl2N2O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Amylamine
CAS:
110-58-7
MF:
C5H13N
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Carbadox
CAS:
6804-07-5
MF:
C11H10N4O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Benoxinate Hydrochloride
CAS:
5987-82-6
MF:
C17H29ClN2O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
THYMOQUINONE
CAS:
490-91-5
MF:
C10H12O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)
CAS:
101-14-4
MF:
C13H12Cl2N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(+)-alpha-Methoxyphenylacetic acid
CAS:
26164-26-1
MF:
C9H10O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-CHLOROBIPHENYL
CAS:
2051-60-7
MF:
C12H9Cl
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(-)-alpha-Methoxyphenylacetic acid
CAS:
3966-32-3
MF:
C9H10O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2-METHYL-2-PROPANOL HEMIHYDRATE
CAS:
6001-64-5
MF:
C8H16Cl6O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(-)-O-Formylmandeloyl chloride
CAS:
29169-64-0
MF:
C9H7ClO3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
trans-3-Indoleacrylic acid
CAS:
29953-71-7
MF:
C11H9NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Homosalate
CAS:
118-56-9
MF:
C16H22O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Indoxacarb
CAS:
144171-61-9
MF:
C22H17ClF3N3O7
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Zaleplon
CAS:
151319-34-5
MF:
C17H15N5O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2,2-DIMETHYL-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-HEPTAFLUORO-3,5-OCTANEDIONE
CAS:
17587-22-3
MF:
C10H11F7O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Eprinomectin
CAS:
123997-26-2
MF:
C50H75NO14
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Tetrapropylammonium bisulfate
CAS:
56211-70-2
MF:
C12H29NO4S
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ascomycin
CAS:
104987-12-4
MF:
C43H69NO12
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Gabapentin-lactam
CAS:
64744-50-9
MF:
C9H15NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide
CAS:
360-97-4
MF:
C4H6N4O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Lynestrenol
CAS:
52-76-6
MF:
C20H28O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazol-4-one
CAS:
27387-31-1
MF:
C13H13NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Isatin
CAS:
91-56-5
MF:
C8H5NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3-Chloro-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine
CAS:
32943-25-2
MF:
C14H12ClN
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dimethyloldimethyl hydantoin
CAS:
6440-58-0
MF:
C7H12N2O4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride
CAS:
16015-69-3
MF:
C11H14ClF3N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
3,5-Dimethylpyrazole
CAS:
67-51-6
MF:
C5H8N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Bromo-4'-methoxyacetophenone
CAS:
2632-13-5
MF:
C9H9BrO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Di-n-butyl ether
CAS:
142-96-1
MF:
C8H18O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
GLYCERIN BASE
CAS:
77944-79-7
MF:
C3H8O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3,4-triazaindolizine
CAS:
2503-56-2
MF:
C6H6N4O
Chemical Name:
Olive oil
CAS:
8001-25-0
MF:
N/A
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Ferene disodium salt
CAS:
79551-14-7
MF:
C16H8N4Na2O8S2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Dexpanthenol
CAS:
81-13-0
MF:
C9H19NO4
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)ethylamine
CAS:
1836-62-0
MF:
C9H13NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(S)-(+)-ALPHA-METHOXY-ALPHA-TRIFLUOROMETHYLPHENYLACETYL CHLORIDE
CAS:
20445-33-4
MF:
C10H8ClF3O2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4'-(2-Methylpropyl)acetophenone
CAS:
38861-78-8
MF:
C12H16O
Structure:
Chemical Name:
(R)-(+)-1-Phenylethyl isocyanate
CAS:
33375-06-3
MF:
C9H9NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
Oleamide
CAS:
301-02-0
MF:
C18H35NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
N-Methylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde
CAS:
1192-58-1
MF:
C6H7NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
L-Octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid
CAS:
80875-98-5
MF:
C9H15NO2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
4-Methoxyisophthalic acid
CAS:
2206-43-1
MF:
C9H8O5
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-Benzylpiperazine dihydrochloride
CAS:
5321-63-1
MF:
C11H18Cl2N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
5,5-DIMETHYL-1-PYRROLINE N-OXIDE
CAS:
3317-61-1
MF:
C6H11NO
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)benzofuran
CAS:
52490-15-0
MF:
C19H18O3
Structure:
Chemical Name:
1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine hydrochloride
CAS:
65369-76-8
MF:
C10H14Cl2N2
Structure:
Chemical Name:
2-Chlorothioxanthone
CAS:
86-39-5
MF:
C13H7ClOS